Cell Signaling Technology (CST)



 Cell Signaling Technology 

Cell Signaling Technology (CST) is a leading provider of high-quality antibodies kits, and services for cellular signaling research. They specialize in developing and manufacturing antibodies that are used for the detection and analysis of key proteins involved in cell signaling pathways.



Antibodies: Antibodies are immunoglobulins (Igs) which are produced in response to antigenic stimulation. Thus all antibodies are immunoglobulins but a immunoglobulins are not antibodies . The antibodies may be bound to a cell membrane or they may remains free. Antibodies are produced by B lymphocytes and plasma cells. In fact B_ lymphocytes get transformed into plasma cells. The mature plasma cell produces antibodies  at an extremely rapid rate __ about 2000 molecules  per second.Antibodies direct the antibody _ mediated inmunity (= human immunity).

Cell signaling is the process by which cells communicate with each other to coordinate their activities and respond to external stimuli. It plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as cell growth, development, immune response, and disease progression.


CST offers a wide range of antibodies that target specific proteins involved in various signaling pathways, including the MAPK/ERK, PI3K/AKT, JAK/STAT, and NF-κB pathways, among others. These antibodies enable researchers to study the activation or inhibition of specific signaling proteins in cells and tissues.



In addition to antibodies, CST also provides kits and services for various applications, such as western blotting, immunoprecipitation, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry. These tools and services help researchers obtain accurate and reliable data, allowing them to gain insights into the complex signaling networks within cells.


Immunity 

Animal body is always exposed to various harmful invaders like viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites and toxic  substances. It has noticed that the persons who had been suffering  from certain diseases like measles and mumps, are not attached in  future by the pathogens of the same disease. It is due to the fact that people have become immune to the concerned disease. The human body has the ability  to resist almost all types of organisms or toxins that damage  the tissues and organs. This capacity  is called immunity. In other words, immunity refers to the resistance of a host to pathogens and their toxic products. The system of animals body, which protects it form various  infections agents and cancer is known as immune system .The  study  of the immune system is called immunology .

Cell Signaling Technology plays a crucial role in advancing our understanding of cellular signaling events and their implications in health and disease. Their products and services are widely used by researchers in academia, pharmaceutical companies, and biotechnology firms around the world.


The four types of cell signaling are:


1. Autocrine signaling:  In this type of signaling, a cell secretes signaling molecules that bind to receptors on its own surface. This allows the cell to regulate its own behavior and function.


2. Paracrine signaling : In paracrine signaling, a cell secretes signaling molecules that diffuse to nearby cells and bind to receptors on their surface. This allows cells within a local area to communicate and coordinate their activities.

In paracrine signaling, a cell produces a signal to induce changes in nearby cells, altering the behaviour of those cells. Signaling molecules known as paracrine factors diffuse over a relatively short distance (local action), as opposed to cell signaling by  endocrine factors , hormones which travel considerably longer distances via the  circulatory system; juxtacrine interactions; and  autocrine signaling . Cells that produce paracrine factors secrete them into the immediate   extracellular environment. Factors then travel to nearby cells in which the gradient of factor received determines the outcome. However, the exact distance that paracrine factors can travel is not certain.

 Paracrine signals such as retinoic acid  target only cells in the vicinity of the emitting cell. Neurotransmitters  represent another example of a paracrine signal.

Some signaling molecules can function as both a hormone and a neurotransmitter. For example,  epinephrine and norepinephrine  can function as hormones when released from the  adrenal gland and are transported to the heart by way of the blood stream. Norepinephrine can also be produced by  neurons to function as a neurotransmitter within the brain. Estrogen be released by the  ovary   and function as a hormone or act locally via paracrine or  autocrine  signaling.

Although paracrine signaling elicits a diverse array of responses in the induced cells, most paracrine factors utilize a relatively streamlined set of   receptors and pathways. In fact, different organs  in the body - even between different species - are known to utilize a similar sets of paracrine factors in differential development. The highly conserved receptors and pathways can be organized into four major families based on similar structures:  fibroblasts growth factor(FGF) family, Hedgehog  family,  Wnt  family, and TGF_ ß superfamily. Binding of a paracrine factor to its respective receptor initiates signal transduction cascades, eliciting different responses



3. Endocrine signaling : Endocrine signaling involves the secretion of signaling molecules called hormones into the bloodstream. These hormones travel through the bloodstream to reach target cells in distant tissues or organs, where they bind to specific receptors to initiate a response.

 Endocrine signals are called hormones .Hormones are produced by endocrine cells and they travel through the  blood  to reach all parts of the body. Specificity of signaling can be controlled if only some cells can respond to a particular hormone. Endocrine signaling involves the release of  hormones  by internal  glands  of an  organisms directly into the  circulatory system, regulating distant target organs. In  vertebrates, the  hypothalamus is the neural control center for all endocrine systems. In humans,  the major  endocrine glands are the  thyroid gland and the adrenal glands  .The study of the endocrine system and its disorders is known as endocrinology.

EXOCYTOSIS 

 Exocytosis is the process by which a cell transports  molecules such as  neurotransmitters and  proteins out of the cell. As an active transport mechanism, exocytosis requires the use of energy to transport material. Exocytosis and its counterpart,  endocytosis, the process that brings substances into the cell, are used by all cells because most  chemical substances important to them are large  polar molecules that cannot pass through the hydrophobic portion of the   cell membrane  by passive transport.Exocytosis is the process by which a large amount of molecules are released; thus it is a form of bulk transport. Exocytosis occurs via secretory portals at the cell plasma membrane called  porosomes. Porosomes are permanent cup-shaped lipoprotein structures at the cell plasma membrane, where secretory vesicles transiently dock and fuse to release intra-vesicular contents from the cell.

In exocytosis, membrane-bound secretory  vesicles  are carried to the cell membrane, where they dock and fuse at porosomes and their contents (i.e., water-soluble molecules) are secreted into the extracellular environment. This  secretion is possible because the vesicle transiently   fuses with the plasma membrane. In the context of  neurotransmission, neurotransmitters are typically released from  synaptic vesicles into the synaptic cleft via exocytosis; however, neurotransmitters can also be released via  reverse transport  through  transport membrane proteins 


 4. Synaptic signaling :Synaptic signaling occurs in the nervous system. Nerve cells, called neurons, use electrical signals to transmit information across synapses to target cells. Neurotransmitters are released from the presynaptic neuron and bind to receptors on the postsynaptic neuron, initiating a response. This type of signaling is crucial for the transmission of nerve impulses and coordination of nervous system activities.

What does cell Signaling Technology (CST)  do ?

Cell signaling technology refers to the tools and processes used to study, manipulate, and understand cellular communication, also known as cell signaling. Cell signaling is the process by which cells communicate with each other to coordinate various functions, including growth, metabolism, differentiation, and response to stimuli. Cell signaling technology enables scientists to investigate the complex mechanisms involved in cell signaling pathways, identify and measure specific signaling molecules or proteins, and manipulate or modulate signaling processes in vitro or in vivo. This technology helps in unraveling the intricate signaling networks that govern cellular behavior and can have applications in various fields such as medicine, biotechnology, and pharmacology.

Research : 

In addition to product development and production, CST is also involved in the development of new technologies for signaling analysis as well as mechanistic cell biology research, particularly in the field of cancer research.

CST curates and maintains PhosphoSitePlus, a web-based bioinformatics resource that details post _ translational modifications(PTMs) in human, mouse and rat proteins. The types of PTMs curated include phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation, ubiquitylation, glycosylation, etc. This freely accessible, online resource is funded in part through grant support from the NIH, and most recently through the NIH BD2K initiative

South Asia's Largest  Cancer Care Network  in Assam 

● PM Narendra Modi launched South Asia's biggest cancer care network by inaugurating seven medical hospitals and establishing  groundworks of  many  more for cancer treatment  in Assam on April 28, 20222. 

●  He initiated one hospital in Dibrugarh and virtually  launched six cancer hospitals in Barpeta, Texpur, Jorhat, Darrang, Kokrajhar and Lakhimpur.

● Assam Cancer Care Foundation  ( ACCF), a joint venture of the Government  of Assam  and Tata Trusts, will run the hospitals .

Second Campus of Chittaranjan January National Cancer Institute  Inaugurated 

● PM Narendra Modi inaugurated the second Campus of Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute  ( CNCI) in Kolkata via, video conferencing on January 7 , 2022.
● The new campus of the institute  had been built at a cost of more than ₹ 530 crore, of which , nearly  ₹ 400 crore has been provided by the Centre and the rest by the West Bengal government in the  ratio of 75.25. 
● The new campus is spread over 10 acres of land. It is a 480_ bed comprehensive cancer centre unit for cancer diagnosis, staging, treatment and care 

SUMMARY 

Health is not just the absence  of disease. It  is  a  state of  compete  physical, mental,  social  and  psychological  well _ being.  Diseases  like  typhoid,   cholera,   pneumonia,  fungal  infections  of skin, malaria  and many  others   are  a major  cause  of distress  to human  beings. Vector_  borne  diseases  like  malaria  especially  one  caused  by  Plasmodium  falciparum  if not  treated,  may  prove  fatal. Besides  personal  cleanliness   and  hygiene,  public  health  measures  like  proper  disposal  of   waste, decontamination  of drinking   water,  control  of  vectors  like  mosquitoes  and  immunisation   are very  helpful  in  preventing  these diseases. Our immune  system   plays  the major role in preventing  these diseases when we are exposed to disease _ causing  agents. The innate  defences of our body like skin, mucous membranes,  antimicrobial  substances present in our tears, saliva and the phagocytic  cells help to  block the  entry of  pathogens  into our body. If  the  pathogens  succeed  in gaining  entry  to our  body,  specific  antibodies   ( humoral  immune  response)  and cells  ( cell mediated  immune response)  serve to kill these pathogens. Immune system  has  memory. One   subsequent   exposure   to same  pathogen,  the  immune  response  is  rapid  and  more  intense.  This  forms   the  basis  of  protection  affected   by vaccination   and  immunisation.  Among  other  diseases,  AIDS and  cancer  kill a large  number  of  individuals  worldwide . AIDS  caused  by  the human  immune _ deficiency   virus  ( HIV)   is  fatal  but  can  be  prevented  if  certain   precautions are taken. Many cancers  are curable if  detected  early  and  appropriate  therapeutic  measures are  taken. Of  late, drug  and alcohol   abuse  among  youth  and   adolescents   is    becoming  another   cause  of  concern.  Because   of  the  addictive  nature  of alcohol   and drugs,  and  their  perceived  benefits    like  relief  from  stress, a person  may  try   taking  these  in  the  face of  peer  pressure,  examinations  _ related  and  competition   _  related   stresses. In  doing  so, he / she  may  get   addicted   to  them. Education   about  their  harmful   effects,  counselling   and  seeking    immediate   professional   and  medical   help  would  totally   relieve  the  individual   from  these  evils.












































































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