United Nation



 UNITED NATION:

During the 49th Group of Seven (G7) summit, India questioned the United Nations' (UN) ability to effectively prevent conflicts. India also raised questions regarding why UN hadn’t been able to arrive at a definition of terrorism. India also retreated for the reform in the United Nation and other international organisation.





Why UN is not able to prevent the Conflict and resolve them? 

 Security Council Dynamics: UN Security Council (UNSC) , supreme decision-making body holds significant power in making decisions related to peace and security.   Permanent members have Veto power, which they used to serve their interest or their partner’s interest.  For instance, China uses Veto power for its interest in Pakistan.
Limited Enforcement Mechanisms: Resolutions passed by UN General Assembly (UNGA) lacks enforcement mechanism.   For the implementation of the decisions is dependent on member states to contribute troops and resources to peacekeeping missions, and their participation is voluntary. In certain cases member states are unwilling or unable to commit resources to implement and enforce its resolutions effectively. Sovereignty and National Interests: These values of the nations hinders collective action and compromise the effectiveness of UN interventions.  Complexity and Divisions: Involvement of the multiple stakeholders and interests make it difficult for UN to provide a solution which is accepted to everyone.  Conflict often involves deep-rooted political, economic, social, and religious factors that are difficult to address comprehensively.   Lack of Financial Resources: This limits the UN's capacity to implement its initiatives and provide adequate support to countries affected by conflicts and terrorism.


Role Played by United Nation historically 

● Maintenance of Peace and Security: Successfully negotiated and implemented peace agreements, such as the Good Friday Agreement in Northern Ireland and the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in Sudan.  ■ UN peacekeeping missions have also contributed to maintaining stability and facilitating political transitions in various conflict-affected regions. 
●Decolonization and Self-Determination: UNGA adopted the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples in 1960 which helped numerous territories in transitioning from colonial rule to sovereign nations.  

●Human Rights and International Law: are being set by it with the help of initiatives like Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), etc.  
● Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs): In 2015, the UN adopted the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which includes 17 SDGs. It is making efforts for international cooperation to achieve the objective of SDGs. ●Humanitarian Assistance and Relief: with the help its specialized agencies and initiatives, such as the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Food Programme (WFP), it has transformed the life of millions of people.

Role of India in resolving global Conflicts 


 ●Mediation and Diplomacy: It focuses on promoting dialogue, encouraging peaceful resolutions, and facilitating reconciliation among conflicting parties. 

●Non-Aligned Movement (NAM): India, as a founding member of NAM, has advocated for peaceful resolutions to global conflicts and supported the principles of sovereignty, self-determination, and non-interference in the affairs of other nations. 
 ● Development Cooperation: India's approach to addressing global conflicts also emphasizes development cooperation. For instance development assistance for the people of Afghanistan etc.  

● Counterterrorism Efforts: India actively participates in international counterterrorism efforts and advocates for global cooperation to combat this shared threat. 
 ●Peacekeeping Operations: Indian peacekeepers have played vital roles in maintaining stability, protecting civilians, and facilitating peace processes in countries like Lebanon, Congo, South Sudan, and Haiti, among others.


How UN can be more effective? 

 ●Strengthening Conflict Preventive Efforts:  Emphasis should be given on preventive diplomacy and instruments like mediation and reconciliation can be effectively utilised. 
 ●Reforms in UNSC:  More representation to Asian and African nation need to be given in UNSC. 
 ■ Inclusion of a country like India as a permanent member will promote effective use of Veto power.  
● Improving Peacekeeping Operations: Enhancing the training, capabilities, and mandate of peacekeepers, will enhance their effectiveness on the ground.  They shall not be used as a tool to fulfil the interest of powerful nations. 
 ● Enhancing Cooperation with Regional Organizations: such as the African Union, European Union, or Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) can strengthen the UN's capacity to address conflicts. 
 
●Addressing Root Causes of Conflict: Sometimes real cause of conflicts  are neglected by the concerned authorities . It may include causes such as poverty, inequality, governance issues, and human rights violations.
 ●Mobilizing Sufficient Resources: Member states should fulfil their financial commitments, and alternative funding mechanisms, such as peacebuilding and prevention funds, can be explored to support long-term peacebuilding initiatives. 

● Strengthening the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) principle: It will promote the trust of people and countries in UN.

What are 7 countries in UN?


There are currently 193 member states in the United Nations. It is not possible to list all 193 countries here. However, here is a list of 7 member states of the United Nations:

United States
China
Russia
France
United Kingdom
Germany
Brazil

Please note that this is just a small selection of member states and there are many more countries in the United Nations.



Conclusion  

It is biggest multilateral organisation of the world and it has enough capability to prevent and resolve the conflicts around the world, but it need to be utilized in pro-active way. Reforms in UN are need of the hour to make it more effective.



























































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