Rare earth Elements


●Hyderabad-based National Geophysical Research Institute has found large deposits of 15 Rare Earth Elements (REE) in Andhra Pradesh's Anantapur district.

Rere earth elements Lithium are not classified as rare earth elements. Lithium belongs to the alkali metal group and is commonly used in the battery industry for the production of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. However, like rare earth elements, lithium is also considered a critical mineral due to its importance in high-tech applications.

● REEs (aka rare earth oxides) are a group of 17 silvery-white soft heavy metals that occur together in periodic table.

● Group consists of yttrium and 15 lanthanide elements {lanthanum (La), cerium(ce), praseodymium(pr), neodymium(Nd), promethium(pm), samarium(Sm), europium(Er), gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium(Dy), holmium(Ho), erbium(Er), thulium(Tm), ytterbium(Y), and lutetium(Lu),}.

● REEs are all metals having many similar 
properties, and that often causes them to be 
found together in geologic deposits.

● REEs are used in high end technology, defence applications, electronic devices like cell-phones, computers, electric vehicle etc. because of their luminescent and catalytic properties.

● In similar development, scientists from Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubaneswar, have estimated the quantity of REEs that can be recovered from Red Mud.

● Red Mud is a toxic byproduct of aluminium extraction from bauxite ore using Bayer process.
■ Red Mud contains REEs. There are two strategiesto recover REEs from red mud: extract only REEs or extract all metals (such as iron, titanium, and sodium) including REEs.

● Reasons for renewed interest 

■ Economic: Helium _ 3 ( an isotope of the element helium) is abundant on Moon, but rare on earth.It is a potential fuel for nuclear fusion.

■ Base for further space exploration: To test how life reacts to harsh conditions of space.

■ To study Earth: as Moon and Earth share a common past.

■ Hydogen and helium are the predominant gases that constitute and sun.The proportion of hydrogen to helium is 3:1.

Rare Earth Metals properties:

■ These minerals are employed in a wide range of contemporary technologies, including consumer electronics, computers and networks, communications,health care,national defence and clean energy technologies, because of their distinctive magnetic, luminescent, and electrochemical properties. 

■ Even futuristic technologies require these REEs.

■ High_ temperature superconductivity, for example, or safe hydrogen storage and transport for a post _ hydrocarbon economy, are examples. They were given the name " rare earth" because it was previously difficult to extract them technologically from their oxide forms.

■ Numerous minerals contain them, although in insufficient quantities for commercial refinement. 

Rare Earth Elements Significanc 

●They're found in consumer goods like smartphones, computers screens,and telescopic lenses.

● Traditional applications include cesium for glass polishing and lanthanum for automotive catalysts or optical lenses.

● Rare earth material are used in a wide variety of critical products, allowing many emerging green energy technologies, high_ tech applications, and defence systems to function.

● They use clean energy, which is essential in today's world.

● Multiple uses: They are used in multiple hi_ tech Applications  and processes like EVs,Medicinal appliances, LEDs etc.that domestic  production of such elements becomes inevitable. 

● Rising Demand:The multifarious uses of rare earth elements  in new age technologies shows that their demand is going to rise in future.  For instance, the current  demand of neodymium in india is small , at around 900 tonnes per annum, because  domestic  manufacturing of  EVs and  wind  turbines  is still limited . However, as manufacturing of EVs and wind turbines picks  up,the  demand for neodymium is estimated to rise sharply by 6_7 times by 2025 ( 6,000  tonnes) and by 18_  20 times  by 2030 ( 20,000  tonnes).

● Reducing Import Bill: India is almost 100% import dependent  for most rare earths which creates a huge pressure  on foreign exchange. Further, prices of rare elements are consistently  rising due to the rising demand. For instance, the global price of neodymium  has risen sharply from under US$ 100 per kg in 2018 to over US $ 200 per kg   in present. 

Important Facts about some Metals

● Zinc phosphor is used for killing rats.

● Wood furniture are coated with since chloride to prevent termites. 

● Excess of copper in human beings causes disease called  Wilson.

● Galvanised iron is coated with zinc.

● Rusting of iron is a chemical change which increases the weight of iron.

● Calcium hydride is called hydeolith.

● Calcium hydride is used to prepare fire proof and waterproof clothes.

● In flash_ bulb, magnesium wire is kept in atmosphere of nitrogen gas.

● Titanium is called Strategic metal because it is lighter than iron.

● Group 1st element are called alkali metals because its hydroxide are alkaline whereas group 2and elements are called alkaline earth metals. 

● Babbitt metal contains 89% Sn(Tin), 9% Sb( Antimony) and 2% Cu ( copper).

● Gun powder contains 75% Potassium nitrate, 10% sulphur and 15% charcoal .

● Chromium trioxide is known as chromium acid.

● Nichrome wire is used in electrical heater {(Ni,Cr,Fe)}

● Potassium carbonate ( K2CO2) is known as pearl ash.

● Generally transition metals and their compounds are coloured. 

● Zeolite is used to remove hardness of water. 
● In cytochrome iron (Fe) is present. 

● Selenium metal is used in photo electric cell.

● Galium metal is liquid at room temperature. 

● Paadium metal is used in aeroplanes.

● Radium is extracted from pitchblende.

● World famous Eiffel Tower has steel and cement base.

● Actinides are radio_ active elements.

● Cadmium rod is used in nuclear reactor to slow down the speed of neutron.

● Sodium peroxide is used in submarine and also to purify closed air in hospital. 

● Oxides of metals are alkaline. 

● Silver and copper are the best conductor of electricity. 
● Gold and Silver are the most malleable metal.

● Mercury and iron produces more resistance in comparison to the other during the flow of electricity. 

● Lithium is the lightest and the most redundant element.

● In fireworks, crimson red colour is due to presence of strontium ( Sr).

● Green colour is due to the presence of Barium in fireworks.

● Barium sulphate is used in X_ ray of abdomen as Barium meal.

● Osmium is the heaviest metal and the Platinum is the hardest. 

● zinc oxide is known as flower of zinc. It is also known as Chinese white and used as white paint.

● Silver chloride is used in photo chromatic glass.

● Silver iodide in artificial rain.

● Silver nitrate is used as market during election.It is kept in coloured bottle to avoid decomposition. 

● Silver spoon is not used in egg food because it forms black slices sulphide. 

● To harden the gold, copper is mixed. Pure gold is 24 carrat.

● Iron Pyrites ( FeS2) is known as fool's gold.

● Mercury is kept in iron pot because it doesn't form amalgam with iron.

● In tubelight there is the vapour of mercury and argon.

● Tetra_ Ethyl lead is used as anti knowing compound.

● Lead _ pipe is not used for drinking water because it forms poisonous lead hydroxide.

● Fuse wire is made up of lead and tin.

● Wrought  iron is the purest from of Iron.

●  percentage of carbon in cast iron = 2.5_ 5%, In Wrought iron= 0.1_ 0.2%

● The melting point of Tungsten ( W) is 3500°C .In India, Tungsten is produced in Degana mine situated in Rajasthan. 

● To prevent oxidation of Tungsten, air is removed from the electric bulb.

● Zirconium ( Zr) metal burns in oxygen as well as in nitrogen. 

● Baddeleyite or Zircona ( ZrO2) is an ore of Zirconium. 

● Zirconium (Zr), Cadmium (Cd) and Boron (B) have the capability to absorb neutrons. So, they are used in nuclear reactor

Lithium rara earth Properties 

Lithium is not classified as a rare earth element. However, as an alkali metal, lithium does have certain properties that distinguish it from other elements.

1): Chemical reactivity: Lithium is highly reactive, particularly with water and oxygen. When exposed to air or moisture, lithium rapidly oxidizes, forming lithium oxide or lithium hydroxide. It also reacts vigorously with water, releasing hydrogen gas.

 2): Low density: Lithium is the lightest metal and has a low density, making it useful in applications where weight is a concern. For example, lithium is commonly used in lightweight batteries.

3): High electrochemical   potential: Lithium has a high electrochemical potential, making it an excellent choice for batteries. Lithium-ion batteries, specifically, are widely used in portable electronic devices due to their high energy density and long lifespan.

4):Low melting and boiling  points:Lithium has a relatively low melting point of 180.5°C (356.9°F) and a boiling point of 1,347°C (2,457°F). This low melting point allows lithium to be easily cast into various shapes.

5):Alkali metal properties:As an alkali metal, lithium is highly reactive and has a single valence electron. It readily forms compounds, especially with nonmetals like halogens. Lithium compounds are used in various industries, such as ceramics, glass, and pharmaceuticals.

It's important to note that rare earth elements, on the other hand, encompass a group of 17 elements including lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, and others. These elements possess unique properties and find applications in technologies like magnets, lasers, and catalysts.

What is the Lithium?

Lithium is a soft, silvery-white metal that belongs to the alkali metal group of elements in the periodic table. It has the atomic number 3 and the symbol Li. Lithium reacts readily with water and has a high level of heat and electrical conductivity. It is typically found in minerals such as spodumene, lepidolite, and petalite, and is also present in seawater and some geothermal brines. Lithium is primarily used in the production of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, which are used in a wide range of electronic devices, including smartphones, laptops, and electric vehicles. It is also used in the production of glass, ceramics, and other materials. Due to its increasing importance in the high-tech industry, lithium is considered a critical mineral.

Lithium Battery:

A lithium battery, on the other hand, is a type of rechargeable battery that uses lithium ions to store and release electrical energy. These batteries are commonly used in portable electronic devices as they are small, light-weight, and have a high energy density. Lithium batteries can be found in smartphones, laptops, cameras, and other devices that require a long-lasting and reliable power source. They are also used in electric vehicles and for energy storage in renewable energy systems. However, lithium batteries can be expensive and require proper handling and disposal due to their potential toxicity.

What are uses of Lithium?

As an AI language model, I am unable to browse the internet or access current information and news. The information I provide relies on my pre-existing database and training data. However, in general, lithium is a highly reactive and versatile element that has various uses:

1): Batteries:Lithium is used in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, which are commonly used in portable electronic devices, electric vehicles, and renewable energy storage systems.

2):Pharmaceuticals:Lithium carbonate is used as a medication to treat bipolar disorder.

3):Aerospace: Lithium is used in the production of lightweight alloys for aerospace applications.

4): Ceramics  and  Glass :  Lithium is used in the manufacture of glass and ceramics as a fluxing agent.

5):Lubricants :Lithium greases are commonly used as lubricants in industrial machinery and automotive applications.

6):Metallurgy:Lithium is used as a reducing agent in the production of metals such as aluminum and magnesium.

 7): Nuclear : Lithium is used as a coolant in nuclear reactors and for the production of tritium.

8):Air Treatment:Lithium chloride is used to absorb moisture in air conditioning systems.

9): Pyrotechnics:Lithium is used in the production of fireworks and flares to create red and purple colors.

10):Agriculture:Lithium is used as a micronutrient in agriculture to improve plant growth and yield.

Lithium Elements:

Lithium is a chemical element with the symbol Li and atomic number 3. It is a soft, silvery-white metal that belongs to the alkali metal group of elements in the periodic table. Lithium has a low density and is highly reactive, making it useful in a variety of applications. Here are some of the key characteristics and properties of lithium:

- Atomic number: 3
- Atomic mass: 6.94
- Melting point: 180.54 °C (356.97 °F)
- Boiling point: 1,342 °C (2,448 °F)
- Density: 0.534 g/cm³
- Valence electrons: 1
- Electron configuration: [He] 2s1
- Oxidation states: +1
- Group on periodic table: 1 (alkali metals)
- Common compounds: Lithium carbonate, lithium hydroxide, lithium chloride, lithium bromide, lithium fluoride.


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