Movement unicellular organisms



 Movement unicellular organisms:

Many unicellular organisms move in searc

h of food and survival. They have long tail_ like structures ( made of protein) called flagella  to help them swim or move. In higher animals, sperm cells use flagellum to swim towards the female egg for fertilization. Movement in eukaryotes is accomplished will cilia, which are short hair _ like proteins built by centrioles. 



  

   In organisms like Paramecium ,the movement is which help of cilia with it can propel itself through watery medium. Eukaryotic flagella and cilia are formed from the basal bodies, small protein structures located just inside the plasma membrane. Basal bodies also help to anchor the  flagella and cilia. There are sti other eukaryotic cells, such as Amoeba and white blood cells that move by amoeboid motion or crawling . A cell using amoeboid motion  and would lose a race to Euglena or Paramecium, but while it is slow, amoeboid motion is strong enough to move the cells against a current, enabling water_ dwelling organisms to pursue and devour prey, 

For examples, white bloods cells roaming the blood stream to stalk and engulf a bacterium or virus.



The cilia and flagella occur on the free surface of a cell. They consist of an axoneme lying in a fluid matrix that is surrounded by extension of cell membrane.  The axoneme comprises two central microtubules surrounded by 9 microtubule doubles ( 9+ 2 pattern). The cilia and flagella are locomotory organelles. The cilia also move materials over the cell surface. 



Examples of unicellular organisms capable of movement:

1): Paramecium: A ciliated protozoan that moves by beating hair __ like structures called cilia. 


2): Amoeba: A types of protozoans that moves using pseudopodia, which are temporary extensions of the cell that temporary extension of the cell that push the organism forward. 


3): Euglena:A unicellular organism that moves using a whip_ like tail called a flagellum. 

4): Volvox: A colonial algae composed of individual cells that have flagella,  allowing the whole colony to move together. 

5): Ceratium: A marine dinoflagellate that has two flagella, one located at each end of the cell, enabling it to move in a spinning motion.


6): Stentor: A large trumpet __ shaped ciliate that moves  by beating its cilia in a coordinated manner.

7): Trypanosome : A parasitic protozoan that causes diseases like African sleeping sickness, which  has a long whip__ like flagellum for movement. 

8): Plasmodium: A parasite protozoans that causes malaria,  which moves within the bloodstream using amoeba__ like type of movement called gliding.

9): Spirostomum: A ciliated protozoan that moves in a spiral motion by coordinated beating of its cilia.

10): Vorticella: A ciliated protozoan that is attached to surfaces by a stalk and contracts rapidly to pull itself towards it prey.























































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