Differences between DNA and RNA



Differences between DNA and RNA 

DNA 

1): It contains  deoxyribose sugar.


2): It has thymine.

3): It lacks uracil.

4): It is a double chain of polynucleotides.

5): Its quantity is fixed in each cell of a species, except gametes. 

6): It mainly  occurs in the nucleus. A small quantity is found in mitochondria and plastids.

7): It can replicate itself.

8): It is the main constituent  of chromosomes. 

9): It controls structure , metabolism , differentiation, heredity  and evolution. 

10): It is of  2 types: linear  intranuclear and circular  extranuclear. 

11): Its molecule is very long ( millions  of nucleotide pairs) and molecular weight is very high.

12) : It is a genetic  material in all organisms. 

13):It does not contain unusual  bases.

14):Amount  of adenine is equal to that of thymine, also amount of cytosine is equal  to that of guanine. 


15): A primer is needed for replication of DNA. 

16): DNA  forms chromosome or chromosomes. 

17): DNA  is hydrolysed by enzyme DNA _ ase.

18): DNA transcribes its  genetic information to mRNA. 

19): DNA  shows regular helical  coiling.

20): A primer is needed for its replication.

21): It contains deoxyribose sugar.

22): It is genetic  material. 

23): It is double stranded except few exceptions ΓΈ × 174.

24): DNA contain a million nucleotides

25): It is of only 2 types _ nuclear and extra nuclear. 

26):DNA  is Fuelgen positive. 

RNA:

1): It contains ribose sugar. 
 
2): It lacks thymine. 


 3): It has uracil. 

 4): It is a single chain of polynucleotides 
 

5): Its  quantity varies in different  cells.


 6): It mainly occurs in the cytoplasm .A small quantity  is found in the nucleus
 

7):   It is formed by DNA and can not replicate  itself.

8): It is mainly  a component of ribosomes

9):  It guides proteins synthesis. It also initiates replication. 

10):  It is of 3 main types: mRNA, tRNA and rRNA. 

11): Its molecule is relatively short ( 70_ 12000 nucleotides) and molecular weight is relatively  low.

 
12): It is a genetic  material in certain viruses. 

13): It may contain unusual  bases in addition  to the normal ones.

14): Adenine and uracil  are not necessarily in equal amounts,  nor are cytosine and guanine  necessarily  in equal amounts.
 
15):  No primer is needed  for transcription  of RNA.

16): RNA  forms ribosomes. 
 
17): It is hydrolysed by enzyme RNA_ ase.


18) : The mRNA  translates its information  into polypeptides. 

19): RNA does not show helical coiling.

20):  No primer is needed for its transcription. 

21): It contains ribose sugar.
 
22):It is genetic material of only some virus.

23): It is single stranded except some exception ( double stranded in Rheovirus).


24): Depending upon the type, RNA contains 70_ 12,000 nucleotides. 
 
25): There are many types of RNAs_ m_ RNA,r_ RNA, t_ RNA, genomic RNA, SnRNA, Sc RNA. 


26): RNA is Fuelgen negative. 


















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