The Living State



The Living State:

At this level, you must understand that the tens and thousands of chemical compounds in a living organism, otherwise called metabolites, or biomolecules, are present at concentrations characteristics of each of them.

For example, the blood concentration of glucose in a normal healthy individual is 4.5_ 5.0 mM, while that of hormones would be nanograms/ mL.The most important fact of biological systems is that  all living organisms exist in a steady _ state characteristicsed by concentrations of each of these biomolecules. These biomolecules are in a metabolic flux. Any chemical or physical process moves spontaneously to equilibrium. The steady state is  a non_ equilibrium state. One should remember from physical that systems at equilibrium cannot perform work. As living organisms work continuously, they cannot afford to reach equilibrium. Hence the living state is a non__ equilibrium steady _ state to be able to perform work.living process is a constant effort to prevent falling into equilibrium. This is  achieved by energy input.Metabolism provides a mechanism for the prodjction of energy. The living state and metabolism are synonymous. Metabolism there cannot be a living state.












































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