Producing Energy ATP

 Producing ENERGY ATP(Anenosine Triphosphate):

Cells require energy for a variety of functions, including moving, building up and  breaking down molecules and transporting substances across the plasma membrane. Nutrients contain energy, but a cell must convert the energy locked in nutrients to another form __ specifically, the ATP molecule, the cell's energy battery __  before it is useful. The ATPA molecule contains three phosphate groups. Chemical bonds link the phosphate group together like railway cars. The bonds that attach the second and third phosphate groups are especially rich in energy. 
          Proteins synthesis 
When the bonds are broken, the energy released is used by the cell. The sourcs of energy for most living things __ directly or indirectly _ is the sun.Plant cells produce ATPA during photosynthesis. Some other organisms, including bacteria, also produce energy by photosynthesis. Animal cells obtain their energy from food that the a animal eats. The animal's digestive system breakdown the food into  basic parts. It breaks fats into  fatty acids; sugars and starches into simple sugars; and proteins into chemical units called amino acids. The blood carries these substances to cells in the body.


In the cell's cytoplasm, simple sugars are broken down into pyruvic acid and a small amount of ATP is produced. The amino, fatty and pyruvic acids then enter the mitochondria. Enzymes in the mitochondria breakdown these substances further in a series of chemical reactions. The molecules that  form as a result of these  reactions will then leave the mitochondria and provide energy wherever it is needed in the cell. For every job that requires energy, special enzymes breakdown the phosphate bonds in ATP and release energy. 


How Human Cell Produces Energy

Most energy is produced in a tiny structure called mitochondrion and is stored in a compound called ATP. To produce, ATP, mitochondria require fuel. In human, this fuel comes from food. The digestive system first breaks down food into amino acids, fatty acids and simple sugars. The blood carries these substances to the cells. In the cell's cytoplasm, the sugars are broken down into  acids. Some ATP is produced. The amino, fatty and pyruvic acids enter the mitochondria. There, in a series of chemical reactions,  ATP is produced, and carbon dioxide and water are released as waste products. How a human cell produced energy. 


Some prokaryotic organisms carry out aerobic respiration. They lack mitochondria, however, they carry out aerobic respiration in  the cytoplasm with the help of enzymes sequestered there.Many prokaryotic species live in environments where there is little or no oxygen ( environment such as mud, stagnant ponds or within the intestines of animals). Some of these animals produce ATP without oxygen in a process known as anaerobic respiration, where sulphur or other substances take the place of oxygen. 

Still other prokaryotesprokaryotes, and yeast __ a single _ called Eukaryote __ build ATP without oxygen in a process known as fermentation. 

Bioenergetics:

The study of processes by which living cells use, store and release energy is called bioenergetics. A central component of bioenergetics is energy transformation, the conversion of energy from one form to another.
 For example, in photosynthesis, plant cells carbohydrates ( sugars and starches) from simple inorganic chemicals by using sunlight. In this process, radiant energy from the  sun is  converted into stored chemical energy. If these carbohydrates are eaten by an animal, they will be broken down and their chemical energy will transform into movement ( kinetic energy), body heat ( radiant energy) or new chemical bonds. In all such transformations, some energy is lost to the environment. Such energy, called entropy, is then no longer available for work.

























































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