Important of Enzymes

 Important of Enzymes:

Enzymes play a significant role in a variety of processes.

I): Biological Uses:

A large number of chemical reaction take place in the living cells all the time. These reactions would normally occur outside the cells only at temperature high enough to literally burn up the cells, or would occur so slowly as to be useless, being unable to sustain life. The enzymes make the biochemical reactions go at ordinary temperature and virtually instantaneously. G.R. Stark has calculated that one molecule of the enzyme urease can break down 30,000 molecules of urea into carbon dioxide and ammonia in just one second. In the absence of that single enzyme molecule, the same reaction would take 3 million years. The enzymes serve as  a substitute for intense heat, because, like heat, they bring the reactant molecules together for rapid interaction. Th enzymes help in many biological processes ___ 

1): Physiology: Enzymes digest food in alimentary canal of animals which will starve without the enzymes. The enzymes are also essential for respiration, blood clotting, muscle concentration, nerve impulse transmission, and so on. A missing or defective enzyme can be very harmful. Lack of sucrase causes abdominal pain and diarrhoea in persons on eating sucrose. 

  Thus, the enzymes make the essential biochemical processes, i.e., metabolism, to occur at body temperature, in other words, they make life possible. 

2): Medical Diagnoses: ELISA ( enzyme __ linked immunosorbent assay) is used for detecting diseases such as AIDS ( aquired immunodeficiency syndrome).

3): Medical Treatment: Enzyme streptokinase is used in dissolving blood clot formed inside blood vessels. 

4): Digestive Aids: Enzymes diastase and others are used as digestive aid in patients with faulty digestive juices.

5): : Genetic Engineering: Enzymes, such as endonucleases, ligases, etc., are used in genetic engineering. 

II): Industrial Uses:

The enzymes have a great industrial value too.

1): Alcoholic Drinks: Enzyme zymase obtained from yeast is used in making alcoholic beverages by fermentation of sugary substances. 

2): Cheese: Enzyme rennin procured from the celf's stomach is used in making cheese by coagulating milk protein caseinogen.

3) Detergents: Detergent for washing clothes contain protease enzyme. 

4) Cleaning of Hides: Enzyme protease is used for cleaning of hides and softening of meat.

 5) Cleaning of Juices: Enzyme pectinase is used for cleaning fruit juices.

6): Baby Food:Enzymes trypsin is added to predigest baby foods partly.

 7): Waste Treatment: Bacteria  in a box of cat's litter ( waste matter) produce the enzyme urease which catalyzes the breakdown of urea ( from urine) into CO2 and NH3.

Enzymes are also used for retting of fibres, degumming  of silk, food processing, and chemical synthesis. 


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