National Quantum Mission( NQM)

National Quantum Mission( NQM):

Why in national Quantum mission( NQM) news?

Recently, National Quantum Mission received cabinet approval at a total cost of about Rs. 6000 crores.

Quantum Communication: 

• A highly secured link, developed by Centre for Development of Telematics (C-DOT), under Department of Telecommunications, was established for the first time in India.

• Quantum Communication refers to communication channels that leverage laws of quantum physics to protect data and make it more secure than traditional 

■In traditional key-based cryptography, data and keys are sent as classical bits (representing 1 and 0) as a stream of electrical or optical pulses.

● However, in a quantum communication network, data is transmitted via qubits.

■Qubits are particles – usually photons of light – in a superposition state, meaning they can be in multiple states and represent numerous combinations of 0 and 1.

■ If a hacker tries to read them in transit, super-fragile quantum state “collapses” to either 1 or 0 and attempt to hack will also be recorded eventually.

● This property has helped to create networks for transmitting highly sensitive data based on a process called quantum key distribution, or QKD.

■ QKD involves transmission of encrypted data as classical bits while decryption key is encoded and transmitted in a quantum state using qubits.

About the Mission 

●Aim: To seed, nurture and scale up scientific and industrial 
R&D and create a vibrant & innovative ecosystem in 
Quantum Technology (QT).

●Implementing agency: It will be implemented by the 
Department of Science & Technology (DST) under the 
Ministry of Science & Technology.

●Mission duration: From 2023 to 2031. 


■ Developing intermediate-scale quantum computers
with 50-1000 physical qubits (refer image) in 8 years. 

■Satellite-based secure quantum communications
between ground stations over a range of 2000 
kilometres within India and with other countries. 

☆ Also, inter-city quantum key distribution over 
2000 km. 

● Applications areas:

■Magnetometers with high sensitivity in atomic 

■ Atomic Clocks for precision timing, communications, 
and navigation.

■ Design and synthesis of quantum materials such as superconductors, novel semiconductor structures, and
topological materials for the fabrication of quantum devices.

■ Single photon sources/detectors, and entangled photon sources for quantum communication, sensing, and 
metrological applications.


■ It includes setting up four Thematic Hubs (T-Hubs) in top academic and National R&D institutes in the domains-

☆ Quantum Computing,

☆Quantum Communication, 

☆Quantum Sensing & Metrology, 

☆ Quantum Materials & Devices.

Significanc of the Mission:

● Technological advancement: NQM can 
take the Technology Development 
ecosystem in the country to a globally 
competitive level. 

● Help various disciplines: The Mission 
would greatly benefit various sectors, 
including communication, health, finance
 and energy with applications in drug design, space, banking, security, etc. 

●Research and Development: It will help establish a research ecosystem in and around quantum technology.

● Global leader: India can take an early advantage in developing the technology and harnessing the benefits.

■Currently, only six other countries – the United States, Finland, Austria, China, Canada, and France are working in the field of developing quantum technology on a large scale.

● National Security: It will aid national security in areas such as optimized intelligence collection,  encryption, 
stealth technology, communications etc.

Way forward 

National Quantum Mission is a giant stride in the future. To realise its potential, a collaboration between business universities, and government must happen. This will help address the financial and human resource gaps and at the same time, aid in the creation of a national quantum research ecosystem.


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