Recently, World Health Organisation (WHO) launched Preparedness and Resilience For Emerging Threats (PRET) 

●  PRET is an innovative approach to improving disease pandemic preparedness. 

■  It recognizes that the same systems, capacities, knowledge, and tools can be leveraged and applied for groups of pathogens based on their mode of transmission (respiratory, vector-borne, foodborne etc.). 

■It incorporates the latest tools and approaches for shared learning and 
collective action established during the 
COVID-19 pandemic and other recent public health emergencies. 

■ It places the principles of equity, inclusivity, and coherence at the forefront. 

■ PRET provides a platform for national, regional and global stakeholders to collaborate to strengthen preparedness. 

■ PRET recognizes that there are 3 tiers of systems and capacities relevant for pandemic preparedness those that are: 

■ cross-cutting for all or multi-hazards,

■relevant for groups of pathogens (respiratory, arboviruses etc.), 

■ are specific to a pathogen.

● PRET operate under the aegis of the International Health Regulations (IHR).

■IHR 2005 are a legally binding agreement of 196 States Parties, including all 194 Member States of WHO to build the capability to detect and report potential public health emergencies worldwide.

■ IHR sets out the core capacities that countries need to be able to detect and respond effectively.

■ WHO plays the coordinating role in IHR implementation and, together with its partners, helps countries to build 

■ IHR require that all countries have the ability to Detect; Assess; Report; and Respond.

● The technical actions in PRET are mapped to the IHR core capacities, grouped according to five subsystems for health 
emergency preparedness, response and resilience (HEPR).

■ HEPR under WHO is a learning channel brings together resources for WHO, national counterparts and partners to outline the process of developing national investment plans to apply for additional resources, including Pandemic Fund resources.

• PRET can also serve to operationalize the objectives and provisions of the Pandemic Accord, which is currently being negotiated by WHO Member states.

World Health organization releases Global TB ,2022

Key findings _ global 

■ Estimated number of deaths from TB increased between 2019 and 2021, reversing years of decline between 2005 and 2019.( Attributed to Covid_ 19 pandemic.)

■  Around 10.6 million people were diagnosed with TB in 2021, an increase of 4.5% from 2020.

■ TB is the second leading infectious killer after COVID_ 19 ( above HIV/AIDS).

India specific findings 

■ With 28% of cases, india has the highest TB patient count.

■ Gap between estimated TB incidence and reported number of people newly diagnosed is highest in India ( 24%).

■ India was among the three countries that accounted for most of the reduction in 2020 ( 67% of the global total).

●Top five risk factors of TB: undernutrition, HIV infection, alcohol use disorders, smoking, and diabetes.

● TB is caused by bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis which typically affects lungs ( pulmonary TB) but can affect other sites.

■ Most common medications used to treat TB include isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, pyrazinamide etc.

■ Currently, Bacillle Calmette_ Guerin (BCG) is the only licensed vaccine available for prevention of TB.

■ It spread from person to person through air.

Additional information:

● Drug _ Resistant TB:

■ Multidrug Resistance TB ( MDR): resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampicin.

■ Extensively drug _ resistant tuberculosis ( XDR_ TB): resistant to isoniazid and rifampin, plus any fluoroquinolone and at least one of three injectable second_ line drugs.

■ Totally drug _ resistant tuberculosis ( TDR_ TB) resistant to all first _ and second _ line TB drugs.

● Steps taken by India to check TB

■ India's vision to eliminate TB by 2025, five years ahead of global target by WHO i.e., 2020.
■ National Strategic plan for Tuberculosis Elimination 2017_ 2025 by Ministry of Health & Family Welfare. 

■ National Tuberculosis Elimination program. 

■ TB Harega Desh Jeetega Campaign. 

■ Nikshay roshan  Yojana for nutritional support to TB  patients. 

First _ Ever Fungal Priority Pathogens List ( FPPL)

● World Health organization ( WHO) has released the first _ ever fungal priority pathogens List ( FPPL).

● The FPPL which includes 19 fungi categoried as critical, high, and medium priority will help identify fungi which pose the greatest threat to public health. 

■ Critical group includes Crytococcus neoformans, Candida auris, Aspergillus Fumigatus and Candida Africans.

■ High group includes Nakaseomyces glabrata ( Candida  glabrata), Histoplasma spp; eumycetoma causative agents, Mucorales,Fusarium spp; Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilosis.

■ Medium group are Scedosporium spp; Lomentospora prolificans, Coccidioides Spp; Pichia Kudriavzeveii ( Candida Krusei), Cryptococcus gattii,  Talaromyces marneffei,Pneumocystis Jirovecii and Paracoccidioides app.

● Fungal Pathogens are a major threat to public health as:

■Most fungal pathogens lack  rapid, sensitive and affordable diagnostics and only four classes of antifungal medicines ( azoles, echinocandins, pyrjmidines and polyenes) Currently available. 

■ The incidence and geographic range of fungal diseases are expanding worldwide due to global warming and the increase of international travel and trade.

■ During the COVID_ 19 pandemic, the reported incidence of invasive fungal infections increased significantly among hospitalized patients. 

■ Fungi that cause common infections become increasingly resistant to treatment. 

☆ Resistance to antifungal medicines is partly driven by inappropriate antifungal uses.


Popular posts from this blog



Nucleic Acids