Emerging technologies



Emerging Technologies in Biology:

Neuroinflammatics is a new field of study at the intersection of information Technology and brain science.






 ■ It includes all elements of brain research ,including its structure, function, development, and diseases .

■ The various types of neuroimaging and the interpretation of such images, as well as brain databases of all kinds and computational models of brain function,are all great interest.

■ Neuroinformatics is synonymous with neurocomputing.

Neruoprosthetic:

Neural prostheses are device that assist or restore function lost because of damage to the nervous system. 


■ It offers the potential to substantially increase the quality of life for people suffering from motor disorders, including paralysis and amputation. 

■ such devices translate electrical neural activity from the brain into control signals for guiding paralyzed upper limbs, prosthetic arms, and computer cursors.

■ These implantable devices are also commonly used in animals experimentation as a tool  to aid neuroscientists in developing a greater understanding of the brain and its functioning. 



Bionic Eye:

Visual prosthesis, or " bionic eye," promise to provide certifical vision to visually impaired people who could previously see.

● Electrical prosthesis surgically implanted into a human eye to allow for the transducent of light ( The change of light from the environment into impulses the brain can process) in people who have sustained severe damage to the retina.


EMBRYA TRANSFER TECHNOLOGY:


Embrya Transfer refers to a stop in the process of assisted reproduction in which embryos are placed into the uterus of a female with the intent to establish a pregnancy. 

● This technique ( with is often used in connection with ' In vitro fertilization ' ( IVF) ,may be used in human or in animals, in which situations the goals may vary.


● First performed in 1984.

● Factors  that can affect the success of embryos Transfer:

■ Endometrial receptivity .

■ Embryos quality and 

■ Embryos transfer technique.

Method of Assisted Reproductive Technology:


In vitro fertilization ( IVF) is the most popular types of assisted reproductive technology ( ART) and is utilized by most patients. In this procedure, a laboratory combines a women's eggs with man's sperm.
In a technique known as embryos transfer, the fertilized egg is subsequently implanted inside the Women's uterus. 

● Gamete introfallopian Transfer ( GFT): is a procedure in which a men's sperm and a women's  egg are combined in a laboratory. The eggs are then inserted into the fallopian tubes, fertilization  takes place within a women body.

■ Intrauterin insemination ( IUI): also known as artificial insemination, entails inserting a man's ( or a donor's) sperm into a women's uterus via a long, narrow tube at or just before ovulation. 

■ Gestational Surrogacy: In this case, the embryo is generated by IVF using the intended parents'or donors' eggs and sperm, and then transferred to the surrogate. The surrogate mother, also known as a gestational carrier, is thus not biologically connected to the kid.

Aquaponics:

Aquaponics are systems consisting of hydroponics and aquaculture elements where fish are farmed and water enriched with nutrients from fish waste is used to stimulate plant growth. 

● Nitrifying bacteria break down fish waste from the aquaculture side of the system into dissolved nutrients ( eg.,nitrogen and phosphorus compounds) that plants use to develop in a hydroponic unit.

● The bacteria living in the gravel and in association with the plant roots play a critical role in nutrient removal. 

Significance of Aquaponics:

 ■ Water  efficient : Aquaponics is a recirculating food production technique the consumes  less than 10% of the water used in traditional fish and plant cultivation. 

● As a result, it is suitable for both small _ scale / domestic use and commercial fresh food production, especially in areas where water is scarce. 



●Notoxic runoff : Neither hydroponics nor aquaculture produce harmful run_ off.

● Food security : It is a good technique to enhance food security by producing 
Protein items such as fish and vegetables in underprivileged and less productive areas. 

●Low  investment is required: Once the system is set up,it only  requires some basic system maintenance, as well as fish, fish meal seeds ( or seedlings),water to replenish the unit .
 

DNA BARCODING:

DNA barcoding is a system for species identification focused on the use of a short,  standardized genetic region acting as a " barcode" in a similar way that Universal product Codes ( UPCs) are used by supermarket scanners to distinguish commercial products. 

● DNA barcoding tools have been developed for the species identification of eukaryotes, including plants and animals. 

● DNA barcoding relies on sequence variation within a short and standardized region of the genome, designated as a " barcode," to provide accurate species identification. 


● This approach is bases on the analysis of the variability within a standard DNA barcode region, which is useful to establish taxonomic relationships. 





























































  

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