Emerging technologies

Emerging Technologies in Biology:

Neuroinflammatics is a new field of study at the intersection of information Technology and brain science.

 ■ It includes all elements of brain research ,including its structure, function, development, and diseases .

■ The various types of neuroimaging and the interpretation of such images, as well as brain databases of all kinds and computational models of brain function,are all great interest.

■ Neuroinformatics is synonymous with neurocomputing.


Neural prostheses are device that assist or restore function lost because of damage to the nervous system. 

■ It offers the potential to substantially increase the quality of life for people suffering from motor disorders, including paralysis and amputation. 

■ such devices translate electrical neural activity from the brain into control signals for guiding paralyzed upper limbs, prosthetic arms, and computer cursors.

■ These implantable devices are also commonly used in animals experimentation as a tool  to aid neuroscientists in developing a greater understanding of the brain and its functioning. 

Bionic Eye:

Visual prosthesis, or " bionic eye," promise to provide certifical vision to visually impaired people who could previously see.

● Electrical prosthesis surgically implanted into a human eye to allow for the transducent of light ( The change of light from the environment into impulses the brain can process) in people who have sustained severe damage to the retina.


Embrya Transfer refers to a stop in the process of assisted reproduction in which embryos are placed into the uterus of a female with the intent to establish a pregnancy. 

● This technique ( with is often used in connection with ' In vitro fertilization ' ( IVF) ,may be used in human or in animals, in which situations the goals may vary.

● First performed in 1984.

● Factors  that can affect the success of embryos Transfer:

■ Endometrial receptivity .

■ Embryos quality and 

■ Embryos transfer technique.

Method of Assisted Reproductive Technology:

In vitro fertilization ( IVF) is the most popular types of assisted reproductive technology ( ART) and is utilized by most patients. In this procedure, a laboratory combines a women's eggs with man's sperm.
In a technique known as embryos transfer, the fertilized egg is subsequently implanted inside the Women's uterus. 

● Gamete introfallopian Transfer ( GFT): is a procedure in which a men's sperm and a women's  egg are combined in a laboratory. The eggs are then inserted into the fallopian tubes, fertilization  takes place within a women body.

■ Intrauterin insemination ( IUI): also known as artificial insemination, entails inserting a man's ( or a donor's) sperm into a women's uterus via a long, narrow tube at or just before ovulation. 

■ Gestational Surrogacy: In this case, the embryo is generated by IVF using the intended parents'or donors' eggs and sperm, and then transferred to the surrogate. The surrogate mother, also known as a gestational carrier, is thus not biologically connected to the kid.


Aquaponics are systems consisting of hydroponics and aquaculture elements where fish are farmed and water enriched with nutrients from fish waste is used to stimulate plant growth. 

● Nitrifying bacteria break down fish waste from the aquaculture side of the system into dissolved nutrients ( eg.,nitrogen and phosphorus compounds) that plants use to develop in a hydroponic unit.

● The bacteria living in the gravel and in association with the plant roots play a critical role in nutrient removal. 

Significance of Aquaponics:

 ■ Water  efficient : Aquaponics is a recirculating food production technique the consumes  less than 10% of the water used in traditional fish and plant cultivation. 

● As a result, it is suitable for both small _ scale / domestic use and commercial fresh food production, especially in areas where water is scarce. 

●Notoxic runoff : Neither hydroponics nor aquaculture produce harmful run_ off.

● Food security : It is a good technique to enhance food security by producing 
Protein items such as fish and vegetables in underprivileged and less productive areas. 

●Low  investment is required: Once the system is set up,it only  requires some basic system maintenance, as well as fish, fish meal seeds ( or seedlings),water to replenish the unit .


DNA barcoding is a system for species identification focused on the use of a short,  standardized genetic region acting as a " barcode" in a similar way that Universal product Codes ( UPCs) are used by supermarket scanners to distinguish commercial products. 

● DNA barcoding tools have been developed for the species identification of eukaryotes, including plants and animals. 

● DNA barcoding relies on sequence variation within a short and standardized region of the genome, designated as a " barcode," to provide accurate species identification. 

● This approach is bases on the analysis of the variability within a standard DNA barcode region, which is useful to establish taxonomic relationships. 



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