Digital India


Even though India is known as a powerhouse of software, the availability of electronic Government services to citizens is still comparatively low. The National e_ Governance plan approved in 2006 has made a steady progress through Mission Mode Projects and Core ICT Infrastructure, but greater thrust is required to ensure effective progress in electronics manufacturing and e_ Governance in the country.  The Digital India vision provides the intensified impetus for further momentum and progress for this initiative and this would promote inclusive growth that covers electronic services, products, devices, manufacturing and job opportunities. India in the 21st Century must strive to meet the aspirations of its citizens where government and its services reach the doorsteps of citizens and contribute a long _ lasting positive impact.


The vision of Digital India aims to transform the country into a digitally empowered society and knowledge economy by leveraging IT as a growth engine of new India.
The programme will be implemented in phases from the current year till 2018. The Digital India is transformational in nature and would ensure that Government service are available to citizens electronically. It would also bring in public accountability through mandated delivery of government's services electronically, a Unique ID and e__ Pramaan based on a authentic and standard based interoperable and integrated government applications and data basis.

Scope of Digital India :

The overall scope of this programme is: 
● Digital India is a programme to prepare India for a knowledge future. 
● The Focus is on being transformative__ to realize IT + IT =IT
●The focus is on making technology Central to enabling change.
● It is an Umbrella programme __ covering many departments. 
■ It weaves together a large number of ideas and through into a single, comprehensive vision so that each of them is seen as part of a larger goal.
■ Each individual element stands on it's own.But is also part of the larger picture. 
■ It is coordinated by Deity, implemented by the entire government. 
■ The weaving together makes the Mission transformative in totality. 

● The programme: 
■ Pulls together many existing schemes. 
■ These schemes will be implemented in a synchronized manner. 
■ Many elements are only process improvements with minimal cost.

● The Common branding of programmes as Digital India highlights their transformative impact.

Vision of Digital India:is Central on 3 key Areas

Vision Area 1: Infrastructure as a Utility to Every Citizen 

● High speed internet as a core utility 
● Cradle to grave digital identity _ unique, lifelong, online, authenticable
● Mobile phone & Bank account enabling participation in digital & financial space.
● Easy access to a Common Service Centre 
● Sharaeable private space on a public cloud ● Safe and secure Cyber _ space

Vision Area 2: Governance & Services On Demand 

● Seamlessly integrated across departments or jurisdictions 
● Services available in real time from online & mobile platforms 
● All citizen entitlement to be available on the Could.
● Services digitally transformed for improving Ease of Doing Business 
● Making financial transactions electronic & cashless
● Leveraging GIS for decision support systems & development 

Vision Area 3: Digital Empowerment of citizens 

● Universal Digital Literacy 
● Universally accessible digital resources 
● All documents/ certificates to be available on cloud
● Availability of digital resources/ service in Indian languages 
● Collaborative digital platforms for participative governance 
● Portability of all entitlements through cloud

Digital India aims to provide the much needed thrust to the nine pillars of growth areas, namely 

Pillars ::::  Detail 

1. Broadband Highways, :: Broadband for all Rural 250,000 GP by 2016. 
Integration of SWAN, NKN , NOFN. To be implemented in 2 years
2.  Universal Access to Mobile Connectivity, :: Remaining uncovered villages ( ~42, 300 villages) by 2018

3. Public Internet Access programme, :: CSCs __ made viable, multi_ functional end _ points for service delivery post Officer to become Multi __ Service Centres

4. e_ Governance: Reforming Government through Technology, :: ● Government Business process Re_ Engineering using IT to improve transactions 
● Form Simplification, reduction 
● Online applications and tracking, Interface between departments 
● Use of online repositories e.g. school certificates, voter ID cards, etc.
● Integration of services and platform__ UIDAI, Payment Gateway, Mobile platform, EDI
● Electronic Databases __ all databases and information to be electronic, not manual 
● Workflow automation inside Government
● Public Grievances Redressal _ using IT automate, respond, analyse data to identify and resolve persistent problems __ largely process improvements 
● To be implemented across government _ critical for transformation.

5.  e_ Kranti __ Electronic Delivery of Services,  ::: ● Technology for Education __ e_ Education 
● All Schools connected with broadband 
● Free WiFi in all schools ( 250, 000) 
● Digital Literacy program 
● MOOCs __ develop pilot Massive Online Open Courses 

● Technology for Health __ e_ Health care 

● Online medical consultation 
● Online medical records 
● Online medical supply
● Pan _ India exchange for patient information 
● Pilots __ 2015; full coverage in 3 years

● Technology for planning 

● GIS based decision making 
● National GIS Mission Mode Project 

● Technology for Farmers

● Real time price information 
● Online ordering of inputs 
● Online cash, loan, relief payments with mobile banking 

● Technology for Security 

● Mobile Emerging Services 

● Technology for Financial Inclusion 

● Mobile Banking 
● Micro__ ATM program
● CSCs / Post Offices

● Technology for justice 

● e__ Courts, e__ Police, e__ jails, e__ Prosecution 

● Technology for Security 

■ National Cyber Security Co _ ordination Center 
● Ongoing Programme ( NeGP) __ will be revamped to cover these elements 

6. Information for All, ::: ● Online Hosting of information & documents 
● Citizens have open, easy access to information 
● Open data platform 

● Government pro_ actively engages through social media and web based platforms to inform citizens 
●2_ way communication between citizens and government 
● Online messaging to citizens on special occasions/ programs
● Largely utilise existing infrastructure _ limited additional resources needed

7. Electronics Manufacturing, :: ● Target NET ZERO Imports is a striking demonstration of intent
● Ambitious goal which requires coordinated action on many fronts
● Taxation, Incentives 
● Economies of Scale, Eliminate cost disadvantages 
● Focused areas __ Big Ticket Items
■ FABS, Fab_ less design, Set top boxes, VSATs, Mobiles Consumer & Medical Electronics, Smart Energy meters, Smart cards, microATMs
● Incubators, clusters 
● Skill development 
● Government procurement 
● There are many ongoing programs which will be fine _ turned.
● Existing Structures inadequate to handle this goal. Need strengthening. 

8.  IT for Jobs ::: ● Train people in smaller towns & villages for IT sector jobs
● IT/ ITES in NE
● Train Service Delivery Agents to run viable businesses delivering ITservices
● Telecom service providers to train rural workforce to cater to their own needs

9. Early Harvest Programmes ::: Biometric attendance 
Wi_ Fi in All Universities 
Public wifi hotspots 
School Books to be eBooks

Program Management Structure:

A programme management structure would be established for monitoring implementation.Key components of the management structure would consist of the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs ( CCEA) for according approval to projects, a Monitoring Committee headed by the Prime Minister, a Digital India Advisory Group chaired by the Minister of Communications and IT, an Apex Committee chaired by the Cabinet Secretary and the Expenditure Finance Committee ( EFC) / Committee on Non Plan Expenditure ( CNE) .

● Overall Costs of Digital India 

~ Rs 100,000 Cr in ongoing schemes ( Only Deity, DOT& not incl. those in other line Ministers) 
~ Rs 13, 000 Cr for new schemes & activities 

Impact of Digital India by 2019

■ Broadband in 2.5 lakh villages, universal phone connectivity 

■ Net Zero Imports by 2020 

■ 400, 000 public Internet Access Points
■ Wi__ fi in 2.5 lakh schools, all universities; Public wi_ fi hotspots for citizens 
■ Digital Inclusion: 1.7 Cr. trained for IT, Telecom and Electronics Jobs
■ Job creation: Direct 1.7 Cr. and Indirect at least 8.5 Cr.
■ e_ Governance & eServices: Across government 
■ India to be leader in IT use in services _ health, education, banking 
■ Digitally empowered citizens__ public could, internet access


■ Program on this scale never conceived 
■ Each pillar/ program has own challenges 
■ Human Resource Issues 
● NIC _ not equipped for a fraction of this task ( obsolesce) _ needs revamping & restructuring 
● Deity _ needs program managers _ at least 4 more officers at senior levels
■ Ministers _ Need a Chief Information Officer/ Chief Technology Officer ( CIO/CTO) 
■ Could begin with CIOs 10 major Ministers 
■ Can be anyone__ from within or outside government 
■ To be patterned as AS & FAs dual reporting 

Financial Resources Issues

■ Mostly structured around ongoing programs: Better focus , need some restructuring 
■ Some others are process improvements or better utilisation of resources 
■ A few new programs may be needed __ particularly in Electronic manufacturing and Skill Development 

Coordination Issues 

■ program covers many other departments 
■ Need commitment and effort 
■ Leadership and support critical for success


● Critical infrastructure protection (CIP) is a concept that relates to the preparedness and response to serious incidents that involve the critical infrastructure of a region or nation.
● In India, it will be realized by National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Center ( NCIPC) 
● "NCIPC" will implement a 5__ year project for Cyber Security of Critical Sectors _ Critical infrastructure protection. 


● Project which seeks to make use to technology in bringing greater transparency and accountability into government functioning.
● All the States and Union Territories across the length and breadth of the country are in the process of implementing the CCTNS project.
● CCTNS Project will create a nation__ wide environment for the real _ time sharing of crime and criminal information. 
● A Mission Mode Project under the National e__ Governance plan of Government of India.
● Aims at creating a comprehensive and integrated system for enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of policing through adopting the principle of e_ Governance. 
● The Project also includes the creation of a nationwide networking infrastructure for evolution of IT_ enabled _ state__ of __ the __ art tracking system around ' investigation of crime and detection of criminals '.


India's supercomputer PARAM Yuva II, developed by the Center for Development of Advanced Computing ( CDAC) , has been ranked first in India, ninth in the Asia Pacific Region and 44th in the world among the most power efficient computer systems as per the Green 500 List announced at the Supercomputing Conference ( SC 2013) in Denver, Colorado, in the US.


As of june 2014, India has 9 systems on the Top 500 list ranking 52, 101, 119, 123, 132, 1e6,281, 441 and 483.

Rank 52


Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology 

 Name Rpeak

PRITHVI ( iDataPlex DX360M4)

 ( TFlop/s) 790.7

Rank 101


Centre for Development of Advanced Computing 


PARAM Yuva _ II 

Rpeak ( TFop/s) 520.5


 Rank 119


Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur


Cluster Platform SL230s Gen8

 Rpeak (TFop/s) 359.6

 Rank 123


CSIT Center for Mathematical Modeling and Computer Simulation 


Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8

 Rpeak (TFop/s) 362.0

 Rank 132


National Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting 


iDataPlex DX360M4

 Rpeak (TFop/s) 350.1

 Rank 136


IT Services Provide 


Cluster Platform SL250s Gen8

 Rpeak (TFop/s) 373.2

 Rank 281


Vikram Sarabhai Space Center, ISRO 


SAGA_ Z24XX/SL390s Cluster

  Rpeak (TFop/s) 394.8

 Rank 441


Manufacturing Company India


Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8

 Rpeak (TFop/s) 175.7 

Rank 483 


IT Services Provider( B) 


Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c Gen8

Rpeak (TFop/s) 195.3


● It is newly invented computer printer which uses water instead of ink to print.
● It uses paper coated with special dyed and the used paper fades back to white within a day, enabling it to be reused. Technology allows each page to be reprinted dozens of times__ based on 50 times of rewriting,  the cost is only about one percent of the inkjet prints. A money and tree_ saving option in a digital world that still relies heavily on hard copy.


● It is a low cost Braille _ printer developed by a 12 year old boy of Indian  Origin Shubham Banerjee.
● Braigo, is short for Braille with Lego as this printer uses toy components manufactured by toy brand Lego.
● Users can type in letters, and the Braigo's needle will hammer out the translated message in raised dots on paper 
● This concept slashes the price of a printer from more than $2000 to around $ 350 for education, teaching and home use purposes. Thus giving a more cost effective printer for the disadvantaged. The printer is also faster than most other commercially available Braille printers in the market.
Braille printers receive data from computer devices and emboss that information in Braille onto paper.


●MRAM, also know as magnetoresistive RAM or magnetic RAM, is a type of non volatile RAM memory which uses magnetic charges in order to store data. This is different from SRAM and DRAM, which use electric charges to store data. The advantage of MRAM is that it retains data when power is turned off.It requires only a small amount of electricity to be able to store data bits. Means work by using two iron plates which " sandwich " a thin insulating layer. One of the iron plates is a magnet which is set to a specific charge, whereas the other plate is variable and allows for the polarity to change according to the pull of the external fields. Millions of magnetic " sandwiches " work together to make up the MRAM memory device .MRAM requires less power than other memory storage systems because it writes and  stores data by using magnetic fields instead of electrical circuits. 

● Application: Computers, consumer electronics, transportation,  military and avionics systems, robotics etc.

● In News: A team of researcher at National University of Singapore ( NUS) have developed new MRAM technology. 

The technology will drastically increase storage space and enhance memory 

12.CERT_ In ( the  Indian Computer Emergency Response Team)

● CERT-In ( the Indian computer Emergency  Response Term) is a government-mandated information  technology (IT) security organizations. 
● The purpose of CERT‐In is to respond to computer security  incidents, report  on vulnerabilities and promote effective IT security  practices throughout  the country.
● CERT-In was created by the Indian Department of Information Technology in 2004 and operates under the auspices of that department. 
● According to the provisions of the Information Technology Amendment Act 2008,CERT-In is responsible for overseeing  administration of act the Act.
CERT organizations throughout the world are independent  entities, although there may be coordinated  activities among groups.
● The first CERT group was formed in the United States at Carnegie Mellon University. 


What is the IT Amendment Act( ITA_ 2008)?

The Information Technology Amendment Act,2008 (IT Act 2008) is a substantial  addition to India's Information Technology  Act (ITA-2000).The IT Amendment  Act was passed by the Indian Parliament in October 2008  and came into force a year later.The Act is administered by the India Copmuter Emergency  Response Term ( CERT-In). 

The original  Act was developed  to promote the IT industry, regulate e-commerce, facilitate  e-government and prevent cybercrime. The Act also sought to foster security practices within India that would serve the country in a global context. The Amendment was created to address issues that the original bill failed to cover and to accommodate further development of IT and related security concerns  since the original law passed.

Change in the Amendment include:

☆ Redefining  terms such as "communication device" to reflect current  use.
☆ Validating  electronic  signatures  and contract.
☆ Making the owner of a given IP address responsible for content accessed or distributed through it.
☆ Making corporations responsible for implementing effective data security practices and liable for breaches. 


The Amendment has been criticized for decreasing has been criticized for decreasing the penalties for some cybersecurity and for lacking sufficient safeguards to protect the civil rights of individuals. Section 69, for example, authorizes the Indian government to intercept,  monitor, decrypt and block data at its discretion. The Act has provided Indian government with the power of surveillance, monitoring and blocking data traffic. The new powers under the amendment act tend to give Indian government a texture and color of being a surveillance state.






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