Carbon Nano Tubes (CNT)

 Throw a light on the carbon nano tubes and discuss its application in various fields?


Ans. Carbon Nano Tubes (CNT) are tubes made from graphene sheets which are of the order of 5-10 nm. These tubes can be single layered or of multiple layers.Carbon nanotube ( CNTs) are allot ropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure.Nanotubes have been constructed with length_ to_ diameter ratio of up to 132,000,000:1, significantly larger than for any other material.These cylindrical carbon molecules have unusual properties, which are valuable for nanotechnology, electronics, optics and other fields of materials science and technology. In particular, owing to their extraordinary thermal conductivity and mechanical and electrical properties, carbon nanotubes find applications as  additives to various structural materials. 

CNT has advantages over other material because of its following properties:

■ Greater electrical and thermal conductivity.

■Great tensile strength and flexibility

■ Efficiency and eco friendly
Because of these advantages it has various applications:

■Carbon nano materials are used in aerospace engineering in the manufacture of aircrafts.

■Nano carbon materials can be used as sensors and as capacitors in electronic field.

■They play a big role in analytical chemistry like chromatography due to their chemical 
inertness and stability.

■ They can be used to increase yield in agriculture. Eg: carbon nano tube is used to decrease chemical usage and to increase the precision of fertilizer supply.

■They can be used in water treatment, energy and in biochemical field.

■ They are Used in manufacture of Sports equipment like baseball bats and tennis rackets.

■They can be used for several industrial uses like smart and novel composites, and in bone growth in tissue engineering.

■They can be used in Military equipment like bullet proof jackets, shoes and helmets.

Carbon nanotube is a great scientific discovery which has a great potential to make significant improvements in human life and the environment. Government has recognised the importance of nano
technology and came up with The Nano Mission.


The bonding in carbon nanotube is sp², with each atom joined to three neighbours, as in graphite.The tubes can therefore be considered as rolled _ up graphene sheets ( graphene is an individual graphite layer). There are three district ways in which a graphene sheet can be rolled into a tube.

Carbon nanotubes are long chains of carbon held together by the strongest bond in all chemistry, the sacred sp² bond, even strongest than the spy bonds that hold together diamond. Carbon nanotubes have numerous remarkable physical properties, including ballistic electron transport ( making them ideal for electronics) and so much tensile strength that they are the only substance that could be used to build a space elevator.The specific strength of carbon nanotubes is 48,000 kN.m/ kg, the best of known materials, compared to high _ carbon steel's 154 kN.m / kg. That's 300 times stronger than steel.You could build towers hundreds of kilometers high with it.

● Carbon Nanotube Technology can be used for a wide range of new and existing applications:

■ Conductive plastics 
■ structural composite materials
■ Flat_ panel displays
■ Ultra _ Capacitors 
■ Gad storage 
■ Antifouling paint
■ Micro _ and nano _ electronics 
■ Radar _ absorbing coating 
■ Technical textiles 
■ Atomic Force Microscope ( AFM) tips 
■ Batteries with improved lifetime
■ Biosensors for harmful gases
■ Extra strong filbers

What is nanotechnology? Explain the advantages of nanotechnology in the environment and energy sector?

Ans: Nanotechnology is the use of science, engineering, and technology at the nanoscale, or between 1 and 100nanometers. At nano scale an element or material exhibit different and new properties and it has applications in various fields like chemistry, physics, biology material science, health and agriculture, environmental science, and  energy sector.

Applications of Nanotechnology in Environmental sector:

■The absorption capacity of nano materials can decrease air pollution.

■ Nano scale particles stop soil pollution by delivering them to the soil contaminated zones.

■ Scientists from IISC Bangalore have developed a nanochip, which can minimize chemical contamination and biological contamination in water bodies.

■ Nano chemical sensors can detect chemical pollutants in the environment. It can capture it and can recycle it.

Applications of Nanotechnology in Energy sector:

■ Nanocellulose based structures are used in energy storage systems, catalyst components, and in photovoltaic devices.

■Silicone based nano semiconductors are used in solar energy.

■ Nano zeolite can be used in crude petroleum refining.

■ Nanofabrication technologies can solve many energy related problems.

Present era belongs to biotechnology, but the future era belongs to nano technology. It is the one of the biggest innovations which can transform entire world from scarce resource region to stable world by contributing to energy and environmental fields. Schemes like Augmenting Writing Skills Articulating Research (AWSAR) can increase the research potential of nanotechnology in India.


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