What is cloning? Describe the evolution of cloning in India?

 1. What is cloning? Describe the evolution of cloning in India?



  ■ In Intro, define cloning in brief. 

■ In Body, you have to write about the evolution of cloning in India. 

■ In Conclusion, you can write about the potential of cloning in India.  

Cloning is a process of making a genetic copy of an organism or biological structure by the asexual method. Carbon copy of any type like organ, tissue, gene and organism etc can be made by asexual production.

  Evolution of cloning in India: 

■ Cloning was started in 2007 by NDRI (National Dairy research institute), Karnal, Haryana. 

■ In India, cloning programs started in 2009, NDRI developed the world’s first buffalo clone called GARIMA. 

■ Then GARIMA-2 was cloned and then MAHIMA, later KARISHMA like this evolution of cloning continued. 

■In 2012, NDRI in the association of Sher-e-Kashmir university developed the Pashmina goat clone. And it was named as NOORIE.

 ■ In 2014, NDRI developed a clone of critically endangered wild buffalo in Chhattisgarh and it was named as DEEPASHA.  

■ In 2015, NDRI developed two buffalo clones APURVA and SWAROOPA and SWAROOPA has got milk yielding capacity as it can give 25.1 liter of milk per day. 

■ NDRI has also developed male buffalo clones to increase the sperm production that will help in artificial insemination programs running in India. 

■ In 2020, NDRI developed a clone of Murrah buffalo named as Tejas which is a male buffalo. It is a high yield variety (HYV) breed. This was developed to increase sperm production. 

Thus, cloning has huge potential to make and break the living ecosystem of our Earth unless it is traded carefully, it can cause disruptions in humanity. 


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