Stem Cell & Cloning ( part2_ part 3)

STEM CELL & CLONING (PART 2):




 STEM CELL & CLONING
 


1) Stem cell are cell present in our body which can divide and provide different types of cell.

2) Stem cell are unspecialised or undifferentiated cell which divide & produce specialized & differentiated cell.

3) Stem cell have characteristic

1)It can under go Multiple division cycle.

2) They have self Renewal ability. 

3) They can produce different type of cells.



#function of Stemcell in our body:

1) It supply new cell for growth and development of our body.

2) It supply cell Healing & Repair in the body.

3) It replaces the dead cell by producing new cell e.g RBC.

Types of Stem Cell: 


1) Totipotent Stem Cell: These can be converted  into any type of cell. 


2)Pluripotent Stem Cell: These stem cells convert into the majority  of cells of the body. 

3)Multipotent Stem Cell: These can be converted  into a good number of cells.

 4) Oligopotent Stem Cell: Can be converted into a few cells. 

5)Unipotent Stem Cell: These stem cells are converted into single cells.

Order Of Stem cells:

1) Capacity: It decreases from Totipotent stem cell to Unipotent stem cell. 


2) Specialization: It increases from Totipotent to Unipotent stem cell. 

Classification based on stem cell formation at different stage of Human life:


1) Embryonic Stem Cell: These stem cells are found in the embryonic stage inside the mother's womb . E.g., Totipotent and Pluripotent

 2) Adult Stem Cell: These stem cells are found in the adult human body. E.g., Multipotent, Oligopotent and Unipatent Stem cell.


Tati potent Stem Cells:



1) These stem cells can divided into any type of cells in the body.

 2) These are  present  in the early embryonic stage (1 week old).


 3)  Totipotent stem cells are banned globally due to ethical and legal issues. 


 4) For medical research, Totipotent stem cell can be obtained from embryo developed in lab by IVF (In Vitro Fertilization)  

Pluripotent Stem Cells:


1) These cells are formed by division of Totipotent stem cells.


 2)  It can give rise to the majority  of cells and tissue in the body by division.


 3)  Medically, this is the most important stem cell which can be used in stem cell therapy and treatment.


 Normally, stem cells are used for the same person  from whom the stem cell has been retrieved. But in many cases, the stem cell of a baby can also be used in blood relations that are its parents and siblings after matching the blood group and HLA (Human Leukocyte Antigen). 


1) Retrieval of Pluripotent Stem Cell: 
These cells can be retrieved  from the human body at different stages. 


2)  Later embryonic stage (After 1 week): It is banned  because it ends up destroying the womb.

 3) From miscarriage (within 12 weeks): It is meant for research  purpose.  From umbilical cord blood of baby: 


4) These stem cells are used in stem cell therapy  and treatment. 

  These can be stored for the next 2 decades. 



5) The stem cell of umbilical cord blood is preserved in liquid  nitrogen at -196 degree Celsius. This is known as cryopreservation. 


6) This service of cryopreservation is commercially  available in India by various companies, such companies are known as stem cell banks. 

Stem cell Therapy:

Stem cell therapy, promotes the repair response of diseased, dysfunctional, or injured tissue using stem cells or their derivatives. It is also known as regenerative medicine. We can simply say that medical use of stem cells for the treatment of disease is Stem Cell Therapy. 

 Application 

 In treating Blood Related Diseases: 


1) Blood Cancer: It is defined as the uncontrolled division of blood cells. 


2) Anemia: Decrease in hemoglobin content in blood leads to anemia. 



3)Thalasemia: If RBC and blood formation stops then it is known as Thalasemia.

1) Damaged Tissue: Stem cells can help in the healing of damaged tissue due to wound or burn. 

2) Blindness: With the help of a stem cell, Retina and Cornea (Parts of eye) can be reconstructed to treat blindness. 


3)  Diabetes: With the help of a stem cell, Type-1 diabetes can be treated. This is a condition of total lack of insulin.


4)  Development of New Organs: New organs can be developed by stem cells for organ transplant. This is yet at concept level not yet achieved.


 5) Stem cells can be used in the treatment of a spinal injury, liver disease, bone and cartilage diseases. 


6) It can be useful in the treatment of baldness and tooth generation. 


Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell (ipscll): 

 ■  In 2007, Shinya Yamanaka from Japan developed a technology by which a normal cell of the body can be converted into Pluripotent stem cell. 

 ■  ‘Induced’ signifies that they are made in the lab by taking normal adult cells, like skin or blood cells, and reprogramming them to become stem cells. 


■  For this achievement, he was given the Nobel Prize of Medicine in 2012.

Stem Cell Research in India


■ In 2002, research in stem cells was started when Dr Venugopal (AIIMS Delhi) used stem cell micro injection for the treatment of heart disease.


 ■ In 2002, the first embryonic stem cell bank was established for research purposes in AIIMS Delhi. 


■ In 2005, Center of Excellence for Stem Cell Research was established in CCMB (Center for Cell and Molecular Biology) Hyderabad.


 ■ In 2007, the Government of India rolled out a new Stem Cell Policy. 

■  In 2014, DBT and ICMR provided a new guideline to regularize and control stem cell treatment and stem cell experiment. According to the guidelines, only blood related treatment and tissue healing treatment by stem cell will be considered as stem cell treatment while rest other efforts will be considered as experiment. 


■ At present, stem cell banking and stem cell therapy is becoming popular in India and many research centers are involved in stem cell research.


Additional Information: 


■  In India, stem cell banking and stem cell therapy is under the control of the Department of Biotechnology (they look after the biotechnology aspects), and Indian Council of Medical Research (they look after the medical science aspect).  


 These organizations give guidelines related to stem cells. 



STEM Cells and cloning (part 3):

Cloning :





■Cloning is a process of making a genetic copy of an organism or biological structure by an asexual method.


 ■Carbon copy of any type like organ, tissue, gene and organism, etc can be made by asexual production.
 ■There are 2 types of production : 

■Asexual: In this mode of reproduction, sperm and ovum are required.

 ■Sexual: In this mode of reproduction, there is no need of sperm and ovum. 

Clone:


 ■ It is a Genetic copy of an organism or biological structure where all physical, biological, and genetic characters are the same as the single parent. 

Note:
● Clone is the organism created and cloning is a process.  

●Human cloning is banned all over the world and cloning of wild animals is also possible. 

Types of cloning




■Therapeutic Cloning: This type of cloning is done for medical or treatment purposes. For Example; Gene cloning: production of insulin by genetic engineering, Tissue and organ cloning: use of stem cells.

 ■ Reproductive Cloning: Organism cloning. 


■In 1996, Ion Wilmut of Scotland developed the first animal clone Dolly sheep. 

■ Dolly sheep was developed by SCNT (Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer) technology.

 ■Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) is the most popular technology for the development of clones of an adult organism.


 process of Dollt Clone Birth:


A somatic cell is taken out of the mother sheep and from another egg donor sheep, one egg is taken.


  Then from the somatic cell of the mother sheep, only the nucleus was taken and the empty cell was left out.

And from egg donor sheep, only an empty egg was taken and the nucleus of the donor sheep was left out.  

Now the nucleus of a somatic cell is added to the empty egg of the donor sheep and now this egg is called a  reconstituted egg. This reconstituted egg is transferred to the embryo of a surrogate female in lab condition and hence embryo transfer is done to the surrogate mother.

Now, this surrogate mother starts pregnancy and then embryonic development takes place and finally it leads to the birth of a dolly clone.

So, this was done with the help of 3 female sheep. 

Scientist Ian Wilmut of Scotland succeeded after 277 attempts. 

Dolly clone is a female sheep.


In the female, there will be presence of somatic cells and an egg, however, in the male there will be only somatic cells but not eggs and thus, no pregnancy. 


Cloning in India:


■Cloning was started in 2007 by NDRI (National Dairy Research Institute), Karnal, Haryana.


 ■In India, cloning programs started in 2009, and NDRI developed the world’s first buffalo clone called GARIMA. 

■Then GARIMA-2 was cloned and then MAHIMA, later KARISHMA. Like this, the evolution of cloning continued.

 ■In 2012, NDRI in the association of Sher-e-Kashmir University developed the Pashmina goat clone and it was named as NOORIE.

 ■ In 2014, NDRI developed a clone of critically endangered wild buffalo in Chhattisgarh and it was named as DEEPASHA. It was taken after the combination of Deepak and Asha where Deepak was a male buffalo and Asha was a female buffalo. Once the male Deepak buffalo died and Asha was left with the option of cloning, so it was done to get Deepasha.

 ■ In 2015, NDRI developed two buffalo clones APURVA and SWAROOPA. SWAROOPA has a high milk yielding capacity as it can give 25.1 liters of milk per day. 

,■NDRI has also developed a male buffalo clone to increase sperm production which will help in the artificial insemination programs that are running in India.

 ■ In 2020, NDRI developed a clone of the Murrah buffalo named as Tejas which is a male buffalo. It is a high-yield variety (HYV) breed. It was developed to increase sperm production. 



Purpose of cloning in India:

■To increase milk production in the country. 


,■ To increase the production of commercially valuable items like Pashmina.

 ■To save a species from extinction.

 India has got the maximum number of cattle in the world. India is the biggest producer as well as largest consumer of milk in the world. But still, India is deficient in milk production. That’s why there is a need to increase the milk production capacity of the country. 

According to the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB), to meet the demand, one crore ton milk production needs to be increased every year. 


Issues Related to Cloning:


■Low  success rate which is 10% only. Due to its low success, there is doubt regarding the economic viability of cloning.


■scientists believe that the genetic age (DNA age) of a clone is equal to the age of the parent organism at the time of birth of the clone. And this old DNA will bring some defects and diseases at an early stage of life. And the clone will suffer from situations that occur in old age. ,
■Dolly sheep died due to arthritis only after 2 years of cloning.  

■Garima died due to a heart attack.  

■These are all due to genetic age. 





























































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