European Space Agency (ESA) has launched JUICE from Europe's spaceport FrencGuiana on an eight-year-long voyage to Jupiter and its moons through Ariane-5.
● Spacecraft will complete fly-bys of Venus, Earth, and the Earth-Moon system to arrive at its destination in 2031.
● It is the first large-class mission in ESA's Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 programme.
●For the first time that the ESA has seknt a spacecraft beyond the asteroid belt.
● It is a product of "global" cooperation between 23 countries, academic institutions, and private companies.
● The Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer ( JUICE) is a planned European Space Agency ( ESA) spacecraft to visit the Jovian system, focused in particular on studying three of Juiter's moons; Ganymede, Calliston, and Europa.
● Exploring the emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants.

● A proposed timeline is launch in 2022 and arrival at the Jupiter system in 2030.


● NASA's James Webb Space Telescope ( JWST) captured new images of Jupiter.

● New images of Jupiter presented its massive storms, colorful auroras, faint rings and two small moons_ Amalthea and Adrastea.

■ JWST, an infrared flagship Observatory, is an international collaboration between NASA, European Space Agency, and Canadian Space Agency to probe cosmos to uncover history of the universe. 

About JUICE Mission 

●Objectives: It will make detailed observations about Jupiter and its three large ocean-bearing moons – Ganymede, 
Callisto and Europa.

■ It will inspect and analyse the moons' weather, magnetic field, gravitational pull and other elements.

● Time Period: It will spend at least three years studying the gas giant and its moons.

●Spacecraft: It has a record 85 square metres of solar panels, which stretch out to the size of a basketball court.

●It will collect as much energy as possible near Jupiter, where sunlight is 25 times weaker than on Earth.

● Payload: It includes GALA (GAnymede Laser Altimeter), MAJIS (Moons and Jupiter Imaging Spectrometer), UVS (UV  imaging Spectrograph) etc.

position: It is the fifth plant from our Sun and is also the largest planet in solar system.

● Rings: It has several rings, but unlike Saturn, Jupiter's rings are very faint and made of dust, not ice.

● Shortest day: It has the shortest day in the solar system ( taken only about 10 hours).

● Moons: Jupiter has 79 moons ( Saturn has maximum at 82) and its four largest moons_ 10, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.

● Great Red Spot: It has big storms like Great Red Spot, which has been going for hundreds of years. Recently, three smaller ovals merged to form Little Red Spot, about half the size of great red spot.

● Auroras: Jupiter's magnetic field also causes spectacular auroras at the planet's poles.Auroras are caused by interaction of energetic particles of solar wind with atoms of upper atmosphere. 

Benefits of the JUICE Mission

● Life in Solar System: It may find the evidence of life on the moons of Jupiter.

●New Scientific Knowledge: It will reveal new set of information about Jupiter.

■Also, it will help in understanding the formation of planets and moon. 

● Inspiration for Other Space Agency: Using renewable source of energy (solar panels) will set an example in front of other space agencies such as ISRO.

Challenges in JUICE Mission

● Complex: Mission is dependent on several manoeuvres which are required for the insertion of spacecraft in the orbit  of Jupiter and Ganymede.

●Extreme Atmospheric Condition: Temperature around the gas planet stands at a chilly -230°C. This contrasts starkly  with the scorching 250°C near Venus. 

● Gravity-assisted flyby: Of Venus, Earth, and the Earth-Moon system may change the trajectory of the mission. 

●Monitoring: Spacecraft will travel more than 1.7 billion miles in space. 

●Collision: Solar panels on the spacecraft are under threat due to Space debris (alsoknown as space junk).

Jupiter Trojan Asteroids (Related News)

● NASA’s spacecraft ‘Lucy’ has captured images of the Jupiter Trojan asteroid for the first time. 

● Images will help scientists to analyze how the Trojan asteroids reflect light from certain angles.

■Trojans (also known as ancient population of asteroid fossils) orbit the Sun in two loose groups, with one group leading 
ahead of Jupiter in its path, the other trailing behind.

■ They are stabilized by the Sun and its largest planet in a gravitational balancing act.

● Lucy was launched in 2021 as the first space mission to study the Trojans. It is on a 12-year mission that will take close 
observations of nine of Jupiter’s Trojans and two main belt asteroids along with that.


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