Define Genetic Engineering and discuss ?

 Q.1 Define Genetic Engineering and discuss its uses?

Ans: Genetic engineering involves inserting,deleting, modifying or replacing DNA in a living organisms genome. It changes the genetic structure of an animal, plant, or other organism in order to make it stronger or more suitable for a particular purpose. 

Use of Genetic Engineering:

● Genetically Modified ( GM) crops :

Genetic Engineering made it possible to create crop varieties regarded as" more beneficial "terms of coming up with crops with the desired traits.

● Example of genetically _ engineered plant (BI cotton )with more desirable traits are drought _ resistant plants disease _ resistant crops, plants that grow faster and plants fortified with more nutrients. 

● Treatment of Genetic Disorders and other Diseases: Through genetic Engineering genetic disorders may also be fixed by replacing the faulty gene with functional gene.

1) Xenotranplantation which is often seen in news is form of genetic engineering. 

2) Development of Genetically modified insulin and hence better protection. 

3) Vaccines that were developed during the time of Covid_ 19 .

4) Disease _ carrying insects such as mosquito may be engineered into becoming sterile insects. This will help in curbing the disease, e:g malaria and dengue fever. 

5) Therapeutic cloning : It is a process whereby embryonic cells are cloned to obtain Biological organs for transplantation. 

Further on, some more use may include: 


● Genetically modified crops can be used to produce bioenergy which will turn out to be more sustainable sources of  energy. 

i) Hence Genetic Engineering has huge scope across various fields and the need is to reach and consult all the stakeholders to sideline the concerns associated. 


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