Why in hydrogen? 

Recently, a report ' Green Hydrogen: Opportunities for Deep Decarbonisation in India'was released by NITI Aayog that highlights green hydrogen is critical to India's net__ zero ambitions by 2070.

Green hydrogen 

Green hydrogen is produced by renewable energy through electrolysis of water. Electrolyser technology is central to the green hydrogen production process. 

● Alkaline, polymer electrolyte membrane ( PEM) and solid Oxide Electrolysers are commercially available  technologies  for green hydrogen  production.  

■ Alkaline Electrolyzers: Alkaline electrolyzers  operate via transport of hydroxide  ion (OH‐) through the electrolyte from the cathode to the anode with hydrogen  begin generated on the side.

■ Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Electrolysers: In a polymer  electrolyte membrane  (PEM) electrolyser, the electrolyte  is a solid specialty plastic material. 
■Applications: Green hydrogen  can be consumed through either direct combustion, electricity  generation  through fuel cells and industries process like ammonia, steel manufacturing  and petroleum refinery  to be used as chemical feedstock.

Significance of green hydrogen energy and potential of India 

● Reduce carbon emissions: It can help abate 3.6 gigatons  of cumulative  CO2 emissions  by 2025.
 ● Enabler of energy security: and reducing  energy import. Because green hydrogen can potentially  provide a replacement of fossil fuels in industrial processes. 
 ● Cost  effective : while hydrogen  can be produced  from multiple sources, India's distinct advantage  in low-cost renewable  electricity  means that green hydrogen will emerge as the most cost- effective form.

●Demand: it is expected that Hydrogen demands in india could grow more than fourfold  by 2050, representing  almost 10% of global demand of which majority of this demand could be met with green hydrogen
● Global  manufacturing  hub: The Quadrilateral security Dialogue (Quad) group eyes India as a global manufacturing  hub for green hydrogen  outside the influence of China.
 ■ A global green  hydrogen  market in india will be an apt alternative  to  maintain balance in the Indo-Pacific region. 

■ It  is possible  because of India's economical labour force and land for manufacturing,  is an ideal location . 

● Joint interest: Countries such as the US and Japan ready to invest in india and countries including Germany  and Japan,  have evinced  interest in importing  green hydrogen from India.

Various initiatives by India in green hydrogen 

● National Hydrogen  Mission: Hydrogeb Mission launched on India's 75th Independence Day. 
■ The Mission aims to aid the Government  in meeting  its climate targets and making India a green hydrogen  hub to meet the targets  of production  of 5 million  tonnes  of green hydrogen by 2030.
● India's Green Hydrogen Policy: Government of india have framed the policy on green hydrogen  which provides  the following: 
■ Green Hydrogen shall be defined as Hydrogen  produced by way of electrolysis of water using Renewable  Energy. 
■ The waiver of inter _ state transmission charges shall be granted for a period of 25 years to the producer of Green Hydrogen.
 ■ Green Hydrogen can be manufactured by a developer by using Renewable energy from a co _ located Renewable Energy plant, or sourced from a remotely located Renewable Energy plants. 
■ Land in Renewable Energy parks can be allotted for the manufacture of Green hydrogen.  
■ The Government of India proposes to set up Manufacturing Zones and Green Hydrogen production plant can be set up in any of the Manufacturing Zines. 
■ Renewable Energy consumed for the production of Green Hydrogen shall count towards Renewable purchase Obligation ( RPO) compliance of the consuming entity. 

Concerns of green hydrogen 

● Transportation and Storage: Storage and transportation of hydrogen have traditionally been difficult due to the unique characteristics of the gas flammability,  low density,  ease of dispersion, and embrittlement. 
● High cost: The cost of green hydrogen production in much higher than what is produced from fossil fuel, due to high prices of renewables and rare earth material used as electrodes.
 ● High energy consumption: The production of green hydrogen particular requires more energy than other fuels. Also, availability of renewable energy is not at par demand. 
● Safety issues: Hydrogen is a highly volatile and flammable element and extensive safety measures are therefore required to prevent leakage and explosions. 

Types of Hydrogen 

● Green: Hydrogen produced by electrolysis of water, using electricity from renewable sources like hydropower, wind, and solar . Zero carbon emissions are produced.  

● Yellow: Hydrogen produced by electrolysis using grid electricity. 

● PINK/PURPLE/RED : Hydrogen produced by electrolysis using nuclear power.

● WHITE: Hydrogen produced as a byproduct of industrial processes.

● TURQUOISE: Hydrogen produced by the thermal splitting of methane, ( methane pyrolysis). Instead of CO2, solid carbon is produced.
 ● BLUE : Grey or brown hydrogen with its CO2 sequestered or repurposed.

● BLACK/GRAY: Hydrogen extracted from fossil fuels, usually cool, using gasification. 

What needs to be done?

● State level actions: Encourage state_ level action and policy making related to Green Hydrogen to complement efforts at the national _ level. 

● Capacity building and skill: Encourage capacity building and skill development across the ecosystem including government, industry, and academia addressing technologies. 
 ● Financial mechanism Adequate financial mechanisms such viability gap funding, production _ linked incentives ( PLI) schemes, reduction or exemption of tax and duties like the GST and custom duties to be encouraged to promote production of green hydrogen energy. 
● Encouraging Electrolyser Manufacturing: Identify and invest in research, development,  and commercialisation of low_ cost Electrolyser technologies that require minimum rare Earth metals.
● Research and Development: Early _ stage R&D to enable technologies that reduces the cost of costs of manufacturing Electrolyser components, using advanced techniques such as additive manufacturing. 
● Near __ term and medium __ term targets: This helps to bring down the current costs of green hydrogen to make it competitive with the existing form of hydrogen.

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