1. INTRODUCTION BIOLOGY




Introduction

Biology: Branch of science in which living being is studied. 

● Bios __ Life & Logos = Study. Therefore study of life is called Biology. The term biology was first coined by Lamarck and Treviranus in the year 1801. Biology has two main branch__. 

1. Botany : Study of different aspects of plants. Theophrastus is known as father of Botany. 

2. ZOOLOGY: Study of various aspects of animals.  Aristotle is called father of Zoology as well as Biology. 

Important terms of Biology:

 ● Anatomy: Study of internal structure of organism. 
● Agrology: Soli science dealing especially with production of crop.
 ● Agrostology: Study of grasses. ● Agrostology : Study of grasses
 ● Apiculture : Rearing of honey bee for honey. Anthropology: Study of origin, development and relationship between the culture of past and present human.
 ● Anthology : Study of flower and flowering plant.
●  Angiology: Study of blood vascular system including arteries and veins. 
●Andrology :  Branch of physiology and medicine specially deal with the problem related to Male reproductive organ
 ● Bryology: Study of Bryophytes.
  ● Biometrics: Statistical analysis of Biological data.
 ● Biomedical engineering: Application of engineering for the production and designing of spare part for overcoming various defects in man.e.g. Artificial limbs, Iron Lung, Pacemaker etc. 
● Biotechnology: Technology concerned with living beings for wilful manipulation on molecular level. 
● Bacteriology : Study of bacteria.
 ● Cytology: Study of cell.
 ● Cryobiology: It is the study of effect of low temperature on organisms and their preservation. 
● Clone: Clones are genetically identical individual in a population.
  ● Cardiology: Study of heart.
 ● Chiropody: Branch of science related with the study of feet. 
● Demography: Study of population.  
● Diffusion: Random movement of molecule / ion or gases from a region of higher concentration to lower concentration. 
● Dermatology: Study of skin. 
● Dendrochronology : Counting and analysing annual growth rings of tree to know its age.
 ● Ecology: Study of inter_ relationship between living and their environment.
  ● Evolution: Study of origin of life, variation and formation of new species. 
● Eugenics Study of factors connected with the improvement of human race. 
● Embryology: Study of fertilization of egg, formation of zygote and development of embryo. 
● Euthenics: Study of environmental condition that contribute to the improvement of human beings. 
● Euphenics: The improvement of Phenotypic defect due to genetical abnormality, by altering the environment. 
 ● Ethology: Study of animal behaviour in their natured habitats 
● Etiology : Study of causative agent of disease.  
● Entomology: Study of insects.
 ● Floriculture: Cultivation of plant for flower. 
● Food technology: Scientific processing,  preservation, storage and transportation of food. 

♦️Forensic science: Application of science for analysis of various fact and evidence to identify the cause or the person involve in criminal act. 

♦️Fishery: Catching, breeding, rearing and marketing of fishes.

 ♦️Forestry: Development and management of forest. 

♦️Fermentation: Process of incomplete oxidation that occur in microbes and other cells in absence of oxygen, leading to the formation of ethyl alcohol.

 ♦️Genetics: Study of variation and transmission of heredity character from parents to their young ones. 

♦️Growth: Permanent increase in weight, volume and size of an organism.

 ♦️Genetic Engineering : Manipulation of gene in order to improve the organism. 

 ♦️Gynecology: Study of female reproductive organ improve the organism.  

♦️Gerontology : Study of aging.

 ♦️Gastroenterology: Study of alimentary canal or ( stomach and intestine) related disorders.

 ♦️Hypertonic: When two solution have different solute concentration.The solution which have higher solute concentration is called hypertonic.

 ♦️Hypotonic: In two solutions which have lower solute concentration is called hypotonic.

● Homeothermic : Animals who have constant body temperature are called homeothermic or warm blooded animal. 

● Histology: 

Study of tissue Organisation and their structure with the help of microscope.

● Hygiene:

Science of taking care of health and prevent, disease, specially through cleanliness. 

● Hydroponics: 

Study of  growing plant without soil in water which contain nutrient. 

● Hematology:

Study of blood in health and disease. 

● Hepatology: Study of liver.

● Ichthyology: Study of fishes.

● Immunology: Study of immune system or resistance of body to disease. 

● Kalology:  Study of human beauty. 

● Metazoans:  All multicellular animals are  called  metazoans.


● Monoecious : Plants which have both male and female flower.

● Morphology: Study of external structure of organism. 


● Microbiology: Study of micro _ organism like virus, bacteria algae, fungi and protozoa. 

● Medicine: Study of treating disease by drug.

● Mammography: Branch of science which deal test for breast cancer. 

● Mycology : Study of fungi.

● Myrmecology: Study of ant is called myrmecology.

● Mixed farming: Farming along with animal husbandry.


● Nutrients:  

Chemical substances taken as food which are necessary for various functions,  growth and health of living.

● Nanotechnology:

 The study ' Science of very small'is known as nanotechnology or manipulation of material and  devices on the scale of atomic  level.


● Neurology : Study of nervous system.

● Neonatology:  Medical care of newborn especially the I'll or premature.

● Nephrology: Study of kidneys. 

● Osmosis:   

Movement of water molecule across semi permeable membrane from the region of its higher concentration to the region of lower concentration. 


● Odontology: Study of teeth and gum.


● Osteology:  Study of bones.

● Oncology: Study of cancer and tumours .


●Obstetrics: Science related with care of pregnant women before, during and after child birth.

● Ornithology: Study of birds.

● Ophthalmology: Study of eyes.

● Orthopaedics:  Diagnosis and repair of disorder  of locomotery system.

●Phytoplankton: 

Microscopic organisms which passively float on the surface of water.

● Parasite: Organism which depend on their living organism for their food and shelter  and other harm it.


● Poikilothermic :  

Organism which change their body temperature according to surrounding. These are also called blooded animal.

● Pigment: 

A substance which absorb light of certain wavelengths like chlorophyll found in green leaves.


● Paleontology : Study of fossil  like dinosaurs. 

● Physiology : Study of function of various system of organism.

● Pathology : Study of diseases, effects, causable agents and transmission  of pathogens.

● Pomology: Study of fruit and fruit yielding plant.


● Psychiatry: Treatment of mental disorders.

● Psychology: Study of human mind and behaviour. 

● Pisciculture : Rearing of fishes.

●  Phycology:  Study of algae.

● Paediatrics:  Branch of medicine dealing with drugs.

● Parasitology: Study of parasites.

● Pharmacology: The science which deal with drugs.

● Photobiology: Effect of light on various biological processes. 


● Phylogeny : Evolutionary history of organism.

● Physiotherapy: Treatment of body defects through massage and exercise. 


● Radiology: 

Medical  science dealing with imaging such as X Ray's, CT, MRI, PET for diagnosis and treating disease in human body.


● Rhinology : Study of nose and olfactory organs.

● Sonography: Study of ultrasound imaging. 

● Saurology: Study of lizards.

● Serology : Study of serum, interaction of antigen and antibodies in the blood.


● Sphhgmology: Study of pulse and arterial pressure.

● Taxonomy : Study of classification, nomenclature and identification of organism.

● Telepathy : Communication of thoughts or ideas from one mind to another without normal use of senses.In other word this is the process of mental contact.


● Veterinary  Science:

Science of health care and treatment of domestic animals. 

● Holstein friesian:  It is a non_ indigenous  breed Of crow.

● Primatology: 
The study of bodies and behaviour of human like species such as monkey, apes, orangutan etc.

● Viticulture: Cultivation of grapes.

● Horticulture: Growing vegetable, flower and fruit for commercial purpose. 

● Agriculture: The science and art of cultivating soil, raising crops and rearing livestock. 

● Olericulture : Science of growing vegetables deal with the culture of non woody plants for food.


Scientists & Their Contribution 

Altman, R. (1886). Described Mitochondria and called them ' Bioplasts'.

■Altman, Richard ( 1889) : Introduced the term "Nucleic acid" for nuclein. 

Balbiani ( 1881) : Reported giant chromosomes ( polytene chromosomes) in salivary glands of chironomous larva.

Benda, C. ( 1898): Proposed the name mitochondria. 

Benden, Van E. ( 1838) : Coined the term protein.

Brown, Robert ( 1831) : Discovered nucleus in orchid roots, pollen grains and stigmas. He also described  brownian movement of cellular constituents.

Buchner, Edward ( 1897) : First extracted the enzyme ( zymase) from yeast.

Chargaff, E. ( 1947_ 1950) :  Stated that DNA contains equal proportion of purines and Pyrimidines. 

Claude, A. ( 1943) : Observed ribosomes and termed "Microsome".

■ Dujardin ( 1835) : Discovered a semifluid material ( protoplasm) in protozoans and called as " Sarcode".

Dutrochet, Rene ( 1824) : A French biologist _ All animal and plant tissues were " aggregates of globular  cells".

Duve, Christian de ( 1952) : First observed lysosomes. 

Euler, Von ( 1933) : Discovered NAD and named as coenzyme I.

Fairley and Kilgour : Classified amino acids. 

Farmer, J.B. and Moore ( 1905) : Coined the term Meiosis. 

Feulgen ( 1924) : Stated that chromosomes contain DNA, with the help of fuchsin staining technique.

Fischer, Emil ( 1894) : Postulated " lock and key" hypothesis of enzyme action.

■ Fischer, Emil ( 1900) : Desciphered the chemical structures of common sugars. 

Flemming, W. ( 1879) : Introduced the term chromatin and described splitting of chromosomes. 

Flemming, W. ( 1882) : First observed giant chromosomes ( Lampbrush chromosome) in the oocytes of amphibians. 

Flemming,  W. ( 1882) : Stated the term Mitosis. 

Fontana, F. ( 1874) : Described Nucleolus.

Gautheret, Nobecourt and White ( 1939) : Successful raised the callus cultures of differentiated cells excised from mesophyll pith, endosperm and secondary  phloem.

Golgi, Camillo ( 1898) : Discovered  Golgi bodies, in the nerve cells of barn owl.

Grew, Nahemia ( 1862) : Laid the foundation of cell concept, i.e., cell is the unit structure in organisms. 

Haberlandt, Gottlieb ( 1902) : Stated that every plant cell should be able to regenerate  a whole plant ( totipotency) .

Haeckel, E. ( 1866) : Coined the term "-Plastid".

■ Holley, R.W.( 1965) : Proposed " clover leaf" pattern of tRNA.

■ Hooke, Robert ( 1665) : Examined a piece of cork and found honey_ comb like structure and called each chamber as ' Cell' ( actually the cell wall), published a book Micrographia.

■ Hoogeboom et.al.( 1948) :Reported mitochondria as a site of respiration. 

Jacob and Monad ( 1961) : Proposed the name mRNA for the RNA carrying information for protein synthesis from the DNA to the sites of protein formation ( ribosomes).

■ Janssen, Francis and Zacharis ( 1590) : Made first compound microscope. 

Knoll, M. and Ruska, E. ( 1932) : First designed the electron microscope. 

Kollicker, A. (1857) : Observed mitochondria in the muscle cells and described as " Sarcosomes".

■ Koshland, Daniel ( 1960) : Proposed " induced fit theory" of enzyme action.  

■ Kreb, A. Hans ( 1937): Discovered the TCA or citric acid cycle.

■ Leeuwenhoek, Von ( 1674) : First to observe a living  cell ( bacterium) having internal organization, he also studied blood cells, sperm and some protozoans. He was also first to observe some organization within the cell i.e., nuclei in red blood corpuscles of Salmon blood.

■ Lipmann, Fritz ( 1941) : Postulated that " ATP is the primary  and universal carrier of chemical  energy in the cell. He first proposed ATP cycle, hence known as Father of  ATP cycle.

■ Lohmann Karl, Fiske C. and Subbarow, Y. ( 1929) : Discovered ATP in the extract of muscles. 

■ Meyer (1883) : Described chloroplast structure. 

■ Miescher, Friedrich ( 1869) : Discovered nucleic acid from the pus cells and termed as " Nuclein".

■ Muir et.al., ( 1958): Used the nurse tissue technique to grow cells. 

■ Nageli, C and Cramer, C. ( 1855) : Termed cell membrane to outer covering of plant and animal cell. 

■ Palade, G.E. ( 1952) : Showed the presence of cristae in mitochondria. 

■ Palade ( 1955): Discovered ribosomes. 

■ Plowe, J.Q. ( 1931): Termed plasmalemma to external covering  of plant and animal cell.

■ Porter, K.R.( 1945): Discovered endoplasmic reticulum. 

■ Purkinje, J.E. and Hugo Von Mohl ( 1840, 1846): proposed the name " Protoplasm" and : Hyaloplasm " respectively for the living  material. 

■ Robertis and Franchi ( 1953) : First observed microtubules and named neurotubules.

■ Robbins and Kotte ( 1922) : Raised the ovule culture by using Vitamin B.

■ Roberston, J.D. ( 1959): Revealed trilaminar structure of membrane and termed " Unit membrane ".

■ Schleiden, Mathias Jacob and Schwann, Theodor ( 1838, 39): Proposed cell theory. Schleiden was first to describe nucleoli, Schwann introduced  the terme metablosim to describe the activities of cell.

■ Schimper, A.F.W. ( 1883) : Coined the term " Chloroplast".

■ Singer, S.J. and Nicolson, G. ( 1974): Proposed the " Fluid_ mosaic model" of membrane structure . 

■ Steward, F.C. et.al. ( 1950) : The first evidence of cellular totipotency in carrot .

■ Steward ( 1963) and Halperin and Wetherell ( 1964): Produced somatic diploid embryos from various carrot cells by  cell culture technique. 

■ Strasburger, E. ( 1975): Observed chromosomes.

■ Sumner ( 1926): First isolated and purified the enzyme (Urease) in crystalline form from Canavalia ensiformus.

■ Swammerdam, Jan ( 1658) : First described a cell ( RBC of  Frog).

■ Virchow, Rudolf ( 1858): Published " Cellular Pathology ".He expressed that the cells arise from preexisting cells i.e., " Omnis Cellula e Cellulae".

■ Vasil and Hildebrandt( 1965): Raised whole plant of tobacco from a single cell.

■ Waldeyer, W. (1888): Introduced the term chromosomes. 

■ Warburg and Christian ( 1934): Discovered NADP+ and named as coenzymes II.

■ Watson, James and Crick, Francis ( 1953): Elucidated the chemical nature of DNA and proposed the double_ helix model .

■ Wilkings and Franklin ( 1950): Confirmed Astbury's inference with X_ ray diffraction stated that purine and pyrimidine bases are placed regularly along the DNA molecule at a distance of 3.4 A. The molecules are twisted into a helix with one complete turn every 34 A°.

Diversity in the living world 

Biology is the science of life forms and living processes. The living world comprises an amazing diversity  of living organisms . Early man could easily perceive the difference between  inanimate matter and living,organisms. Early man deified some of the inanimate matter ( wind, sea, fire etc.) And some among the animals  and plants  A common feature of all such forms of inanimate  and animate objects was the sense of awe or fear that they evoked. The description  of living  organisms including human  beings began much later in human history. Societies  which indulged in anthro_ pocentric view of biology could register limited progress in  biological knowledge. Systematic and monumental description of life forms brought in, out of  necessity, detailed systems of identification, nomenclature and classification. The biggest spin off of such studies was the recognition  of the sharing of similarities  among living organisms both horizontally and vertically. That all present  day living  organisms  are related to each other and also to all organisms  that ever lived on this earth, was a revelation  which humbled  man and led to cultural movements for conservation of biodiversity . In the following of this unit, you will get a description, including  classification, of animals and plants from  a taxonomist's perspective. 





Brone on 5 july 1904, in Kempten, Germany, ERNST MAYR, Harvard University  evolutionary biologist who has been called ' The Darwin of the 20th century ' was one of the 100 greatest scientists of all time. Mayr joined Harvard's Faculty of Arts and Sciences in 1953 and retired in 1975, assuming  the title Alexander Agassize Professor of Zoology Emeritus. Throughout his nearly  80  years career, his research spanned ornithology, taxonomy, zoogeography, evolution, systematics, and the history and philosophy of biology.He almost single__ handedly made the origins of species diversity the central question of evolutionary biology that it is today.He also pioneered the currently accepted definition of a biological species. Mayr was awarded the three prizes widely  regarded as the triple crown of biology : the Balzan Prize in 1983, the Internalization  Prize for Biology in 1994, and the Crafoord Prize in 1999.Mayr died at the age of 100 in the  year 2004.














 

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